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\ 



WRINKLES. 






$ 






li 



WRINKLES; 

OR, 

HINTS TO SPORTSMEN AND TRA VELLERS 
Buss, (Equipment, anil Camp %\it. 

BY ^ 

THE OLD SHEKARRY, Q^-'^l- - 






A NEW EDITION, FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 

loittioitt 

CHATTO AND WINDUS, PUBLISHERa 

1874. 





HARVARD 
UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARY 
MAR 5 1641 




LONIK)N : 
8AYILL, EDWARDS AND C0.» PRINTBRS, OHAHDOS STRBKT, 

COVEMT QARDEM. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Having been often applied to for information 
concerning the most suitable Dress, the most 
efficient Arms, and the best equipment for a 
Sportsman, I have endeavoured, in the follow- 
ing pages, to concentrate my ideas on these 
points for the benefit of the uninitiated. I 
have also added a description of the different 
modes of hunting the fiercer denizens of the 
Forest, and sundry practical hints upon travel- 
ling and campaigning, that may be useful to 
those who have not yet acquired that expe- 
rience of camp-life, without which, in a wild and 
almost unknown country, peopled by treacherous 
tribes, the Traveller will have much difficulty in 
keeping his health sound and his skin whole. 



1 



CONTENTS. 

OHAP. PlGl 

I. Upon Dress 1 

n. The Equipment of a Traveller and Sports- 

man 21 

in. Armament — Sporting Arms 57 

IV. Armament — Military Arms 90 

V. Armament — On the Selection of Arms . .125 

VI. Practical Hints on the Use of the Rifle . .136 

Vll. Tents and Encampments 164 

Vin. Hints to Travellers 191 

IX. Hints to Sportsmen 219 

X. Hints to Naturalists — Directions for Collect- 
ing and Preserving Specimens of Natural 
History 237 

XI. The Forest and the Mountain . . . , .263 



r ^(^ 



/ 



"WRINKLES" 

OB 

HINTS TO SPORTSMEN AND TMYELLEES. 



CHAPTER I. 



DRESS. 

A Traveller's Comfortr-Dress: Underclothes, Socks, Coat, Waist- 
coat, Tronsers, and Breeches — On the Most Suitable Oolonr 
for a Sportsman's Dress— Table of the Effect of Colour- 
Braces— Boots— " The Old Shekarr/s Campaigning Boot " — 
Waterproof Clothes— TheOldShekarry's Poncho, or " Multum 
in Panro " Cloak : a Ground Sheet, a Cloak, a Tent, a Bed, 
and a Raft— Waterproof Hunting Gtear-^SouVester, Jacket, 
and Overalls — Head Gear — Leech-gaiters and Tree-leeches — 
Outfit of a Sportsman for a Cruise of Six Months. 

Much of a traveller's comfort depends upon his 
dress being suitable to the climate he is in, and I 
shall commence with a few hints as to the selection 
of an outfit. 

All experienced travellers seem to 

Shirts. 

agree in one point, viz., the import- 
ance of wearing flannel next the skin; and no one 
who has any regard for his health will neglect 

B 



/ 



"Z SHIRTS — SOCKS. 

the precaution of providing himself with shirts 
or under-clothing of this material, if he is at all 
likely to be exposed to sudden changes of climate, 
as it absorbs perspiration and prevents sudden 
chills. 

In tropical climates, calico shirts may be worn, 
but, without flannel under-clothing, linen should 
never be placed next the skin. 

Flannel ought to be thoroughly shrunk before 
making up. 

The most comfortable hose to wear 

Sooks. 

are thick, but not coarse, woollen 
socks ; but care must be taken that the tops are 
sufficiently elastic to prevent their slipping 
down, as when walking it is a great nuisance 
to have to stop every few minutes, to pull up 
your socks. They ought to fit well, particu- 
larly about the heel, so as to prevent galling 
or blisters. 

Messrs. Thresher and Glenny, in the Strand, 
have been long celebrated for their socks, shirts, 
and under-clothing. 



COAT, WAISTCOAT, AND TROUSERS. 3 

The material for a traveller's dress 

Coat, Waist- • i j 

ooat, and entirely depends upon the climate he 

Trousers. 

is going to. 

For a temperate climate, woollen tweed, or 
angolas are, perhaps, the best general wear; but 
for the tropics, I prefer coloured flannel, as being 
more comfortable and easier to wash. 

For a sportsman, well dressed deer-skin is the 
best material ; when that is not procurable, mole- 
skin, velveteen, corderoy, fustian, canvas, duck, 
or karkee (coloured cotton), may be used. 

A traveller ought to study comfort more than 
elegance, in the cut of his clothes, and little 
attention should be paid to change of fashion. 

Sanguinetti, of Regent Street, in former days, 
used to be a famous tailor of *^ clothes for the 
bush," but I think he has gone the way of all 
flesh, as his establishment has vanished, and his 
mantle appears to have descended upon Bird, of 
IS, Waterloo Place, a practical man, who knows 
how to cut out ** hunting togs," so as to be com- 
fortable in any position, without being baggy, 

B % 



4 SLEEVE WAISTCOATS. 

which is a great desideratum when forcing one's 
way through dense forest. 

My own experience leads me to believe that a 
short blouse-shaped tunic, with sleeves and wrist- 
bands, like a shirt, straight collar, and plenty of 
well-cut pockets, is most comfortable for general 
wear. Mr. Bird has built me a shooting-coat, with 
waterproof arrangements for carrying two dozen 
cartridges, just below the waist, which appears to 
me to be everything that can be desired. 

Waistcoats ought to be cut long, with four 
pockets, and the substance behind ought to be as 
thick and warm as the material of which the 
waistcoat is made. 

Some sportsmen prefer having a waistcoat 
made with sleeves like a jacket, and in that case 
there are no sleeves to the coat, simply armholes. 
In shooting upon the moors, sometimes this is a 
useftd dodge, as during the heat of the day the 
outer garment can be dispensed with, and carried 
by a beater. When worn, this rather peculiar 
arrangement cannot be distinguished. 



COLOUR. 5 

Mr. Cooper, a sportsman of Yorkshire celebrity, 
was the first to show me this arrangement. 

For shooting, I prefer breeches, cut so as to 
come well below the calf, and tying with flat tape 
over the sock, an arrangement that does away 
with the necessity of long stockings and garters 
[which are only suitable to women] when wearing 
boots or gaiters. There should be no hem at the 
bottom of the legs of the breeches, or it may form 
a ridge, and gall the legs. 

For riding, nothing is so comfortable as leather 
breeches, but thick moleskin, doubled inside the 
legs, is not bad wear. 

In Equatorial Africa, during the intense heat 

of the day, I generally wore a kilt and flannel 

shirt, boots and gaiters, which dress I found 

cooler and less liable to gall than trousers. Many 

good sportsmen prefer the kilt to any other dress, 

on account of the freedom and play it allows the 

limbs. 

The sportsman should have all his 
Colour. /• i_ 

dress as nearly as possible of the 



6 CJOLOtTR. 

same colour as the general aspect of the country 
he is going to shoot over. 

Thus, when he is deer-stalking, or tracking 
large game in woods before the leaf has fallen, 
green is the best colour ; when the trees are 
bare, dark brown — the colour of the trunk and 
branches. Is he after antelope on the plain, or 
ibex amongst the rocks, drab is the best colour. 
Should he be waging war against the grisly bear, 
or hunting chamois bouquetin in the snow, he 
would be able to get much nearer to his game if 
all his clothes were white. 

Even in ordinary small game shooting, the 
sportsman will stand a much better chance of 
making, if he attends to this plan of dressing. 

The following tables were constructed with 
great care from a series of experiments I made 
with targets of diflferent coloured cloth, under 
various circumstances and at different dis- 
tances, in order to assist volunteer corps in 
the selection of the most suitable colour for their 
uniform. 



COLOUR. 



The figure 1 denotes the most visible ; 7 the 
least so ; invisible. 





At Thiee^ Hundred Yards' 


At Six Hundred Yards. 
















« 


1 










m 


• 
5 
















« 


t: 










■a 


♦J 




Coloon. 


• 

1 


5 

1 

1 


• 

1 


i 


1 


1 


s 


1^ 

1 


1 


1 


1 


il 

i ^ 


3 

1 ^ 


§ 


• 




1 

4 


1 

3 


4 


OQ 

1 

3 


2 


t 

4 


1 

5 


4 


1 

4 


2 


1 

5 


II 

3 2 


< < 
3 5 


5 
< 

4 


5 


Scarlet .... 


Green CBifle). . 
Blue (Boyal) . . 


3 


6 


5 


4 


4 


2 


4 


3 


3 


7 


4 


5 4 


4 4 


3 


3 


2 


4 


4 


3 


5 


3 


3 


2 


2 


6 


3 


4 5 


4 3 


2 


2 


White .... 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


5 1 


2 


1 


Gray 


7 


a 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


7 


6 


7 





7 


7 


7 


6 


Browxi(clpadleaf) 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


5 


7 


6 


7 





6 


6 


6 


7 


Ootoun. 


• 




At Three Hundred Yards distant. 


On a Clear Day. 


On a Cloudf Day. 






• 








• 








1 








M 


• 

1 


t 


• 

1 


1 


1 


1 


t f 


1 


1 


1 








I 


00 

3 


3 


9 

00 

4 


4 


1 
3 


4 


6 I 


1 "^ 

i 3 


i 

4 


I 

5 


Scarlet. . . . 






4 


Green (Bifle) . 






3 


4 


4 


3 


7 


7 


3 


^ 


k 4 


3 


4 


Bine (Boyal) . 






2 


5 


3 


2 


6 


6 


3 


^ 


I 4 


3 


4 


"White .... 






1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 i 


2 2 


1 


1 


Gray .... 






7 


6 


7 


5 








5 


< 


i 6 








Brown (dead leai 


0. 


, 


6 


7 


6 


6 








6 


e 


J 7 


7 


7 



By these Tables it wili be seen, that gray or 
brown are colours that are less distinguishable 



8 BRACES — BOOTS. 

than any other ; they are, consequently, the most 
suitable for the dress of sportsmen. 

I think braces are a convenience, 
and always use them when wearing 
thick clothing ; but as many sportsmen dispense 
with them altogether, perhaps use is second na- 
ture. However, having the waist compressed by 
tight trouser-bands is not my idea of comfort. 
A woman's hips are made to hang petticoats on, 
but a man is diflferently formed in that respect, and 
his garments will only keep up by compression. 

A traveller's comfort and a sports- 
Boots. . 

man's efficiency depends more on his 

boots than upon any other portion of his dress, 

and great attention ought to be paid to their 

fitting the foot well, and having a sufficiently broad 

tread. 

For many years I wore ankle-boots and 

gaiters, and provided the former fit, and the 

latter are well cut, so as to prevent extraneous 

matter from getting in, they are comfortable 

wear. 



BOOTS. y 

After a time, however, I began to think that 
lacing-up boots and buttoning gaiters was un- 
necessary trouble (besides, not one man in a dozen 
can cut a gaiter to fit properly), so I devised a 
campaigning boot upon a plan of my own, which 
experience has proved to be a more comfortable 
and serviceable article. I herewith give a sketch 
of my invention, which Stokes, a ci-devant 
trooper, of Coventry Street and Aldershot, has 
carried out very efficiently. 

The best material for making 
this boot is of deer-skin, doubled 
over the foot when it is pro- 
curable, but brown or drab 
waterproof canvas is not a bad 
substitute, being footed with 
The Old She- leather. It ought to fit the 

karry's Campaign- 

ingBoot. leg well, and the leather uppers 

should be cut so as to compress the foot as 
little as possible. 

A shooting-boot ought ,to be waterproof to be 
thoroughly comfortable, and the real article is as 




10 WATERPROOF CLOTHES. 

unlike as possible those ponderous pieces of 
machinery one sees in shop-windows ticketed 
"for the moors.** They must be of first-class 
material to be serviceable, but light, so as not 
to fatigue the wearer ; and they should also fit 
well, so as not to gall, cause blisters, and 
make the feet sore. A weU-fitting boot is as 
necessary to a sportsman as a true shooting 
rifle. 

For stalking large game, boots should be made 
with single leather flexible soles, so as to prevent 
the footstep being heard. 

It is a great mistake to think that a heavy sole 
is necessary for a shooting-boot. 

A very excellent waterpoof shooting boot, 
called " The Jdstone Boot'' is made by Mr. T. E. 
Cording, S31, Strand, of a material that requires 
no dressing, and stiU always keeps soft and 
pliatle. 

Waterproof ^^® traveller and sportsman should 

ever be prepared for any sudden 

change of climate, and always have warm clothing 



ROUGHING IT. 11 

at hand^ as very often whilst the days are in- 
tensely hot the nights are chilly, and the tempe- 
rature varies according to the elevation attained. 
It is of the greatest importance that his outer 
covering should be of a texture sufficiently close 
to prevent the wind blowing through it, or thick- 
ness is of little avail in keeping out intense cold ; 
hence the great advantage of buffalo robes and 
mackintosh garments. 

For general use, Cording's waterproof material 
far surpasses all other, as it is guaranteed to 
stand any climate, and rolls up in a small 
compass. 

Every traveller ought to provide himself with 
a cloak or coat and souVester of this material, 
which should be always kept handy and ready 
for use, more especially in night travelling, for 
nothing tries a man's constitution more than 
exposure to night-dews after the exhaustion 
and lassitude caused by an intensely hot day. 
Rheumatism and fever are anything but agree- 
able companions, as I have often fotmd to my 



12 THE GEOUND SHEET. 

cost; and a little timely precaution may avert 
seriotis con sequences. 

Having liad much " roughing it " in my time, 
often with very small means and few con- 
veniences, I have been compelled to study how 
to make one article serve in a variety of ways. 
When baggE^e is obliged to be limited and car- 
riage is difficult to obtain, it is very desirable to 
have multttm in parvo. 

I shall now describe " a poncho " of my own 
invention, carried out by Mr. Cording, of 231, 
Strand, which serves as a ground-sheet, a tent, a 
bed covering, or even, if required, a boat or rafi; 
for crossing rivers. 

It consists of waterproof 
canvas, 8 feet by 7 feet 6 
inches in size, with a longi- 
tudinal slit in the centre, 
and eylet-holes worked all 
round, as in the cut, when 
it serves as a ground- 
The Qround-Bheet. sheet and coverlet 



THE ClOAK. 13 

It fonns a comfort- 
able cloak for riding 
or waiting, by putting 
it on and slipping the 
head through the hole 
in the centre, the cor- 
ners buttoning up in 
the inside if in the way. 
In travelling through 
mangrove swamps on 
the West Coast of 
Equatorial Africa, 
where there was no 
The cioai. solid ground on which 

to pitch a tent, I used to sleep in a hammock slung 
between trees, and whilst following up the spoor 
of a herd of elephant, or when surrounded by 
hostile tribes, and I dare not clear a few yards 
of hush in the forest lest the sounds of the axe 
should be heard and give the alarm, my poncho, 
ri^ed up like a pent root, in this fashion, afforded 
me a shelter impervious to the weather. 



14 



THE BIVOUAC. 




The Bivouac 

For a boat or raft, the poncho should be con- 
structed with an oval ring, two feet wide all 
round, which can be inflated with air, A wooden 
or basket-work bottom (anywhere easily con- 
structed) is then fixed underneath, by cords 
passing through the eyelet-holes, and a commo- 
dious raft, capable of containing two people, is at 
once constructed, and easily worked by paddles. 
By having the basket-work or wooden bottom 
some inches larger than the inflated poncho, all 
danger of the cylinder being pierced by snags of 
rocks, or branches, is avoided. 

Mr. Cording has my pattern poncho, and fully 
understands its manufacture. 



POSCHO BAFT. 



16 



THE STYLE OF RIG. 




The Sou'wester. 




The Jacket. 




For shooting in the 
wet season, I have a 
complete waterproof 
suit, which ^ I find 
much more handy 
when making my way 
after large game, 
through thick bush. 

The cuts will ex- 
plain my style of rig, 
which is comfortable, 
if not elegant. Care 
must, however, be 
taken that they are 
made of a material that 
will stand a tropical 
climate; as a very nice- 
looking suit I bought 
from Box, of Charing 
Cross, proved utterly 
useless on the "West 
Coast of Africa, as. 



The OveraU*. 



HEAD GEAR. 17 

the first time I had occasion to use it, I found 
it so stuck together, that it was torn into shreds 
before I could open it out. 

The best covering for the head in 

Head-G«ar. 

tropical climates is pith *' solar topee^^ 
or helmet, such as old Sir Charles Napier and 
Sir Colin Campbell used to wear ; or when that 
is not obtainable, an Elwood's ventilating air- 
chamber hat, covered with white calico, is a good 
substitute. Christy, of Gracechurch Street, also 
manufactures a capital hat for withstanding the 
rays of the sun, which my experience leads me to 
believe is almost perfect. 

A leather hunting-cap, 
.■«• £^ 1^ with peaks before and 

behind, is the best protec- 
tion to the head for large 
game-shooting in dense 
forests. The front peak preserves the eyes from 
glare and the face from thorns, and the one be- 
hind prevents anything from falling down the 
back of the neck. I had a movable white linen 




18 GAITERS. 

cover fitted to mine^ as a protection from the rays 
of the sun during the heat of the day. 
j^qJj In forests where the tree-leech 

abounds, leech-gaiters must be worn, 
for these animals insinuate themselves into every 
aperture of your dress, generally making for 
your ankles or the back of your neck, as if by 
instinct. 

When in such jungles it is absolutely neces^ 
sary to wear leech gaiters, or long, closely- woven 
cotton stockings, over your socks, under your 
Doots and gaiters, and over your breeches, as far 
as they will go. Even with this safeguard I 
have sometimes found my boots and stockings 
drenched with blood in the evening, though I 
could not ascertain how they got in. 

These pests of the jungle are very insignificant 
in size, not being above an inch in length, or 
thicker than a knitting-needle; but when dis- 
tended with blood they attain double that length, 
and are about as thick as a good-sized quill. 
They have the power of planting one extremity 



THE TREE-LEECH. 19 

on the ground, and poising themselves erect to 
watch for prey, towards which they advance 
rapidly by doubling up the body and holding on 
with their head and tail. They are of a yellowish- 
brown colour, streaked with black, with one 
greenish line along the whole length of the back, 
and a yellow one on each side.. Their bites 
scarcely give any pain at the time, the punctures 
being so small as hardly to be perceptible, but 
they cause an uncomfortable irritation; and with 
persons in a bad state of body often occasion 
nasty ulcers, which are slow to heal. The natives 
were accustomed to smear their naked legs with 
some peculiar kind of grease mixed with ashes, 
the scent of which prevented the leeches from 
biting, otherwise they would have been seriously 
inconvenienced by their attacks. 

Every traveller and sportsman has his own 
idea and style of dress. '^ As many men, so many 
fashions^* — ^but, for the benefit of the uninitiated, 
I will give a list of such clothes, as I consider 

c2 



20 A hunter's outfit. 

necessary for myself for a cruise of six months in 
the bush : 

8 flaimel shirts (made large). 

12 pairs of woollen sooks. 

6 pairs of brown hoUand or China silk piqanias. 

12 pocket handkerchiefs (linen). 

1 leather snit, complete (coat, breeches and waistcoat). 

1 moleskin snit, complete (coat, breedies and waistcoat). 

2 i>airs of tronsers (either moleskin, fdstian or Tdveteen). 
2 pairs of braces. 

2 pairs of long cotton stockings, for leeoh-galters. 

1 leather hnating cap and linen cover. 

1 pith " solar topee," or air-chamber hat (for tropics). 

1 sofb felt wide-awake. 

2 pairs of ankle boots. 
2 pairs of gaiter boots. 

1 Cording's waterproof snit, complete, or poncho. 

1 canvas hold-all : containing comb, tooth-brash, sosp, needles, 

thread, buttons, scissors, thimble, ^. 
6 towels (good size). 
6 napkins. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE EQUIPMENT OF A TRAVELLER 
AND A SPORTSMAN. 

Oliyer Cromwell's Letter upon a Soldier's Equipment — ^The Saddle 
and its Appurtenances, Bridle, KoTBe-geax — The Old She- 
karry*s " Pack Saddle"— Spurs— The Hnntingr Belt and its 
Appnrtenances — ^The Bill-hook and Tomahawk — The Nagger 
Hunt Spear — ^The Deccan Hnnt Spear — ^Bear Spears — The 
Indian Hunting Cart and its Appnrtenances — ^The Medicine 
Chest and its Contents — Pocket Filters — The Old Shekarry's 
Pomp and Filter combined — Cording's Inflatable India* 
Bubber Boat. 

" Wisbeach, this day llth Nov'- 1642. 
"Dear Friend, 

" Let the saddler see to the horse-gear. I 
learn from one, many are ill served, and if a man 
has not got good weapons, horse and harness, he 
is naught. 

« From your friend, 

" Oliver Cromwelt 
" To Auditor Squire." 



22 THE SADDLE, 

Oliver Cromwell, the most practical soldier 

and statesman of his day, thus wrote upwards of 

two centuries ago ; and I quote his characteristic 

letter, as I never read so much good advice in as 

few words. The first point for consideration is 

the horse -gear. 

I shall commence with " the sad- 
TheSaddle. „,,,., 

die, which, to be thoroughly strong 



THE SADDLE. 23 

and serviceable, with its appurtenances, will not 
weigh less than fifteen pounds. T prefer a 
broad, roomy, and low seat, so that I sit close 
to the horse, and I like it cut almost flush. 

On the near side of the pommel, fastened by 

strong 2)'«, I carry a waterproof wallet for my 

pistol and ammunition, which should set close and 

• stand well forward, so as not to be in the way 

of the leg. » 

On the off-side T have a strong painted canvas 
bag, which is prevented from shifting forward by 
a leather strap that passes round the saddle-girth. 
Into this my gun-stock fits, the barrel passing 
between the right arm and the side, so that it is 
always handy, never in the way, and my hands are 
free. This method, which I learned from the 
Boers of Southern Africa, is perfectly safe, and 
by far the most convenient and the least fatiguing 
mode of carrying a gun I have yet seen. 

On the near side of the saddle, fastened by 
strong Zy«, is slung my water-skin, which will 



24 



THE SADDLE. 



hold two gallons of water ; and on the off-side a 
haversack, with com for my nag^ and comestibles 
for myself. 




Small Valise. 



Behind the crupper I carry a pad, on which 
rests a very small valise (containing two pairs of 
socks, flannel shirt and trousers, soap, towel, and 
tooth brush — vide Plate, above), a ground-sheet, 
macintosh cloak, and horse-cloth, which are con- 
fined in a network bag (vide Plate, page 25) to 
prevent any article being lost en route. This bag 



THE SADDLE. '^ 

also serves for collecting forage, or carrying game^ 
etc., on occasions. 



A couple of thin strips of felt or *' nutnna" is 
useful to place under the saddle when it does not 
fit the horse's back, but for hard riding nothing is 



HORSE 8 HEAD-GEAR. 



like a piece of oil silk laid directly under a well- 
Gtuffed saddle. 



Horae's Head-Gear. 



I always travel with a plain head-stall bridle 
(vide Plate, above) which has only four buckles. 



horse''s head-gear. 27 

two on the head-collar, one on the bit-head 
stall, and one on the bridoon head-stall. The 
head-stall fastens to the collar by strap and 
button. 

The bit, bridoon and head-stall toe provided 
with hooks and links, by which the bits can be 
slipped out of the horse's mouth for the purpose 
of feeding, without taking the bridle off the 
horse's head. I generally ride with a single 
"Chifneybit." 

Shipley, of 181, Regent Street, the most prac- 
tical saddler I know, is well up in all the ar- 
rangements concerning horse-gear, and he has 
been put up to all kinds of " useful dodges " 
and expedients by different well-known sports- 
men whom he has fitted up. 

A traveller should take hobbles and knee- 
halters with him to tether his horses, so that they 
can graze during the night. 

As a protection against thieves, steel hobbles, 
made somewhat like hand-cuffs, connected by a 
chain, are useful. 



28 THE PACK-SADDLE. 

A comfortable Englisli -saddle^ and well-fit- 
ting horse-gear, is absolutely necessary to a 
traveller and sportsman; and the utmost 
care should be taken that the former is well 
stufied, so as not to gall the horse's back, as 
a quarter of an hour's hard riding on a badly 
fitting saddle may break the skin, and give a 
horse a sore back that will take several days to 
heal. 



The Pack. There are no articles in a traveller's 

equipment to which more attention 
ought to be paid than to the pack-saddles for 
baggage-animals. If they do not fit the horse, 
mule, or bullock properly, a single day's march 
will, in all probability, render the animal unser- 
viceable. 

As no pack-saddle I have seen in any army 
seemed thoroughly to answer its purpose under 
all situations, I set to work and devised one after 
nay own fashion, which I consider has many 



IMPROVED PACK SADDLB. 



"Th« Old Shekorrr'B Faok-Saddle." 

great advantages over all other systema yet 
adopted. 

First. — The chief improvement in " The Old 
ESiekarry's Fack-Saddle" coneists in the tree, 



30 IMPROVED PACK SADDLE, 

which widens or contracts by working on a pivot 
Kke a pair of scissors, being kept open at any 
angle by a rack at the opposite and corresponding 
angle, so that in a moment the saddle can be 
made to fit any sized animal, and is equally 
available for a horse, a mule, a bidlock, or a 
camel. 

Secondly, — My system possesses a great ad- 
vantage over the Government pack-saddle, inas- 
much as its peculiar formation does away with 
all possibility of galling an animal's back, as 
no weight rests upon any part of the spine 
itself, the centre of the back being left en- 
tirely open to the air even when the baggage is 
loaded. 

Thirdly. — The tree, which is either entirely 
made of wrought iron, or of wood well 
strengthened with iron, closes up, and the 
saddle can be packed into half the space re- 
quired by the system at present adopted by 
Government. 

Fourthly. — Anv tree or part of a tree will fit 



COST OF IMPROVED PACK SADDLE. 31 

any saddle, and should any part of a tree get 
broken, it can be replaced in two minutes, and 
the saddle is again serviceable, whereas in other 
systems, when a tree is broken, the saddle is 
useless. 

Fifthly. — A cannon can be carried by this sys- 
tem of pack-saddle over the centre of the mule's 
back, along which the weight is thtis equally 
divided. 

In the pack-saddles adopted by Government 
for carrying the mountain train in Abyssinia, the 
gun is carried transversely — at right angles with 
the mule's back, or across instead of along it. 
The consequence of this arrangement is, that the 
whole weight of the gun rests upon only a small 
portion of the spine, instead of being evenly 
divided, as in the approved system, along the 
whole length of the animal's back, and should 
a stumble occur, a sprain of the spine is very 
likely to be the result. 

Sixthly. — When baggage animals are driven 



32 SPURS. 

together in any number, it is almost impossible to 
prevent them from knocking against each other, 
and displacing their loads j it is therefore highly 
advantageous that the baggage should be carried 
as compactly as it can be stowed, and take up 
as little lateral room as possible. 

In mountainous districts, where the paths are 
narrow, and run by the edge of precipices, this 
is an absolute necessity. 

This saddle is amply supplied with rengs and 
D^Sy fixed securely on to the iron trees, so that 
the baggage is easily loaded, and kept securely in 
its place. 

Seventhly, — The cost of my system of pack- 
saddle is about half of the price that Government 
lately paid for cimibrous and much less service- 
able articles. 



The best-shaped spurs for a tra- 

Spnrs. 

veller or sportsman are strong steel 
or brass swan-necked hunting spurs, with the 












THE HUNTING BELT. 33 

rowels sufficiently raised to prevent their grat- 
ing against stones or uneven ground when dis- 
mounted. 

A man with long legs requires spurs with long 
necks^ so that he may readily reach his horse's 
flank with the rowej ; but a man with short legs, 
on the contrary, should have spurs with short 
necks, as his heels, when mounted, are close to 
the body of the horse. 

The Hunting ^® ^^^^®> P^S® ^*^ ^^ * ^^^^^^ 

of the Belt and Appurtenances 
I usually wore when in the pursuit of large 
game, manufactured by Thomhill of 144, 
New Bond Street, the most practical man in 
tlie trade. 

*' The Belt" A A is about two inches in 
width, and made of strong brown leather. 
Great attention should be paid to the sewing 
on of the buckles, which ought to be of forged 
iron. 



S4 



HUNTISG BELT. 




Tlie Huntliig Belt and its ^i 



HUNTING KNIVES. 35 

Fig. 1. A stout leather case containing my 
field-glass. 

Fig. 2. Mjr ^' Hunting Knife." I prefer this 
shape to any other, as it is well suited for all 
purposes. In selecting a knife, great care should 
be taken that the point and axis of both blade 
and handle should be in a straight line, or a fair 
blow cannot be struck with effect, the weapon being 
liable to glance off. 

With one of ThornhiU's knives I can cut 
through a dollar ; and it is absolutely necessary 
that the blade should be made of the best steel, 
for, besides its use as a weapon, it must often 
serve to cut branches, and even in digging for 
water. 

Fig. 3. The ^* Skinning Knife," made after 
the pattern of A. Graham, Esq., which I do not 
think can be improved upon. 

Fig. 4. "A Line" of strong silk, substantially 
fastened to a forged iron bar. This is of great 
use as a safeguard, in case of having to descend 
any steep slope or narrow ledge of rock when in 

d2 



36 



POUCHES — B ILL-HOOK . 



the pursidt of game. It is also veiy useful for 
drawing water from wells or chasms in the rocks, 
tying up the arms of a prisoner, or tethering 
animals. 

Fig. 5. "A Leather Pouch,'* containing 
either a double-barrel pistol or revolver [else- 
where described]. 

Fig. 6. '* A Small Case," containing matches, 
flint, steel, and amadou, for obtaining fire, and 
in a similar one the pocket filter ought to be 
carried. 

Fig. 7. ''A Leather Pouch/' containing 
eight cartridges for gun or rifle, and six for the 
pistol. 




i 



The Bm Hook. 



TOMAHAWK. 



37 



TheSm- 
Hook. 



Besides these articles^ in some 



cases, when in thick jungle, it is 
advisable to carry a bill-hook for cutting a path 
or making a clearing. This fits in a leather 
case, which is easily fastened on the belt when 
required. 





The Tomahawk. 



" The Tomahawk," or small axe, herewith 
represented, is useful in making tent-pegs, cutting 
up animals, and for a variety of purposes in camp 
life. 



38 thornhill's indian knife. 

Lastj but by no means least in importance, 
comes the knife, of which an engraving is given 
on the opposite page, and which, in addition to 
the ordinary blades, contains a powerful screw- 
driver, a saw about eight inches in length, 
pricker, corkscrew, hoof-picker, tweezers and 
lancet in one, a pair of scissors of the full length 
of the knife, and a couple of stout steel screws, 
with nuts, for mending a broken stirrup leather 
or any similar fracture. 

All implements have rings attached, so as to 
enable them to be fastened with small cords to 
the belts. 

Every sportsman ought to provide 

SpeaPB. 

himself with a few spear-heads, which 

can at any time be affixed to a bamboo with 
*^ shellac cement.^* The b^st shapes for boar- 
spears are those called after the celebrated Indian 
Pig-sticking Clubs, ''The Nugger" and ''The 
Deccan" Hunts. 



THORNHILL 3 INDIAN KNIFE. 



Ibonhill'a Tyii^jnTi Znilb, 



SPEARS. 41 

In the foregoing Plate Fig. A shows the Nugger 
Hunt pattern, which I consider the neplus ultra of 
boar-spears, the curves being gradual from point 
to shank, so that it penetrates easily, and is with- 
drawn without difficulty. Another great advan- 
tage of this shape is, that the edge can be easily 
ground, and afterwards sharpened on a hone. 
(Fig D shows the section at a J.) 

Fig. B is the Deccan Hunt spear pattern, also 
a good spear, and preferred by some sportsmen 
to that of the Nugger Hunt, because the orifice 
of the wound it makes is somewhat larger, and 
allows the blood to flow more freely. It is, how- 
ever, more difficult to sharpen. (Fig. E shows 
the section at c cf.) 

Fig. (7 is a bear-spear, somewhat similar in 
shape to the Nugger Hunt spear, but broader in 
the blades and with a stouter shaft. (Fig. F shows 
the section.) 

I need not add that all spears ought to be 
made of the best tempered steel. With one 



42 8PEARS. 

made by Thomliill, of Bond Street, I can drive 
a hole through a dollar without turning the edge, 
a sure proof that the best of " stuff'* is used in 
his factory. 

A stout male bamboo, sufficiently tapering, 
and with knots pretty close together, makes the 
best spear-shaft ; but a close-grained, well- 
seasoned ash-pole is not a bad substitute. 

The spear ought to be well balanced, and it is 
usual to have the butt weighted with lead for 
that purpose. The spears of the Deccan and 
Nugger Hiints were exactly 9 feet from the 
extreme point to the butt, and this is, I consider, 
the best length for general purposes. 

In Bengal many sportsmen use a spear only 6 
feet in length, heavily weighted at the butt. 
They are accustomed to throw this like a javelin, 
or to job down when the horse gets alongside of 
the boar ; whereas, in Madras and Bombay, hog- 
hunters use the spear like a lance, but carried 
loosely in the hand, so as to allow the free 



HUNTING CART. 43 

play to the wrist in directing the point of the 
spear. 

Htmtiiur ^^ India, I had constructed, accord- 

ing to my own plan and fancy, what 
I should advise every sportsman in that country 
to possess — ^that is, a very comfortable teak- wood 
bullock-cart, on springs, and fitted up for travel- 
ling or living in. Mine was 7 feet long by 4 feet 
broad; and contained three large water-tight 
boxes or compartments, to hold my kit and 
comestibles en route, with a fourth, copper-lined 
and fitted with a screw-top, which fastened with a 
lock, for my ammunition, besides a rack for eight 
guns. The wooden sides were about 2J feet in 
height, and from them sprang six bamboo hoops, 
on which the white painted canvas* top was ex- 
tended ; the whole of which gear was movable, 
and could be cleared away at a moment's notice. 
The bottom of the cart was slightly bevelled off 
round, caulked and sheathed with copper; so 
that, by taking out the linch-pins, and putting the 
wheels into the cart, my trap served me as a boat 



44 



APPURTENANCES. 



O 



3 § 

to transfer myself and goods across rivers othei? *3 
wise impassable. When in cantonment I tooK S 

out the pole and bullock-yoke, and fitted in ^ 

S 

pair of shafts ; and although it was not a yerp 

light article^ an Australian mare I had used 
to trot along with it with great ease. The whole 
length of the bottom of the cart was fitted with a 
hair mattress, and the sides were well padded, so 
that I managed, when travelling, to get along 
pretty comfortably. 



o 

50 




Appnrte- 
naAoes. 



ThoTnhm*8 Saw. 

* 

A large Yankee backwoodsman's 
axe, a couple of bill-hooks, an adze, 
and other tools, were fitted against the side 
of my cart, so as to be ready at hand in case 
of a break-down, which is an event of frequent 
occurrence in Indian travelling. An obstrepe- 



MEDICINE CHEST. 45 

rous bullock or a careless driver is very liable to 
smash a pole or a yoke en route/ and, in many 
parts of the country where game abounds, village 
smiths are difficult to be met with, and I have often 
been saved hours and even days' delay, by having 
the means of repairing them at hand. 
Medicine "^ well-supplied medicine-chest, in 

which the quinine-bottle loomed very 
large, was carefully stowed away in one of the 
compartments — a very necessary precaution in a 
country where disease makes such rapid progress. 
Besides having often found this chest extremely 
useftd, the mere fact of having it with me inspired 
my people with confidence, and overcame their 
fear of the malaria of the dense jungle. 

Messrs. Savory and Moore, of 143, New Bond 
Street, have always filled up my medicine -chest; 
and their practical experience has been of the 
greatest use to me in my travels, for, in case of 
sickness, the proper remedy was ever at hand when 
wanted. In order to meet different requirements, 
large and small chests have been designed, from 



46 MEDICINE CHEST. 

the size of a pocket-book to the medical paaniers 
containing all appliances, both medical and sur- 
gical, that may be required by a regiment in the 
field. 

The following Plates illustrate those best 
adapted for a traveller or sportsman : 



The above Plate represents a strong leather case, 
6 inches by 9 inches, and only 2^ inches in thick- 
ness (in fact, of the form and size of an ordinary 
octavo volume, and opening in much the same 
manner), contains a pair of scales, with the 
necessary weights, a small glass measure, 8 small 
bottles adapted to receive either powders or pills, 
8 of larger size stoppered for liquids, and 2 still 



MEDICINE CHEST. 47 

larger for holding any medicines required ia 
greater balk. Thia little case, wMch would 
scarcely take up any appreciable room in tlie 
travelling bag, will contain all the medicines 
required in any case of emergency. Its value 
to a party of tourists, or to a single traveller, 
removed irom medical aid, can hardly be over- 
rated. The " Special Correspondents" of our 
daily papers have used these cases in nearly 
every quarter of the globe, and have spoken 
most highly of their utility. 



This Plate represents a larger case of the 
same character, containing a greater nomber of 



48 LIST OP MEDICINES 

remedies, and, in addition, a few surgical appli- 
ances that may be required in an emergency. 

List of Medicines suitable for a Medicine Chest 
for India or Abyssinia. 

Quinine. 
OalomeL 
Jalap. 
Bhnbarb. 
Magnesia. 

Essenoe of camphor (mbini). 
Tinotnie of iodine. 
„ amioa. 

Minderems spirit. 
Sweet spirit of nitre. 
Powdered ipecacuanha. 
Tartar emetic. 
James's powder. 
Jeremie's opiate. 
Essence of gmget. 

19 peppermint. 
Dover's powder. 
Friars' balsam. 
Essenoe of senna. 
Warburg's tincture. 
Sulphate of copper. 
Sulphate of zinc. 
Nitrate of silver. 
Opiate confection, tablets. 
Aromatic confection, „ 
Calomel and opium pills. 
Etherodine (instead of chlorodyne). 



FILTERS. 49 

Full information and directions respecting the 
administration of the rarious remedies will be 
found in the " Compendium of Domestic Medi- 
cine, and Companion to the Medicine Chest," 
by Savory and Moore, 143, New Bond Street. 

A filter is a most important requi- 
site, which ought always to be found 
in a traveller's equipment, as good water is aa 
essential to health as pure air. 



The DanolUU Fotdtet Tiller. 

A very efficient portable filter is manufactured 

by the London and General Water Purifying 



50 FILTERS. 

Company^ at 157, Strand, being the invention of 
Mr. Danchell. 

Tlus filter, which is only 3 inches in diameter. 
Is constructed upon the syphon principle, and by 
means of a system of ascending currents the sus- 
pended impurities are separately precipitated 
outside the filter, whilst those only which are 
held in solution actually pass into the filtering 
material, the water being purified firom these in 
the act of ascension. A case of galvanised iron 
contains the filtering material — animal charcoal — 
which is the best medium for purifying, as it is 
incapable of communicating any taint to the water 
passing through it, retains its purifying properties 
for a long period, and is everywhere easily pro- 
curable. 

The action of this system is so simple that no 
attention or trouble is required in its manage- 
ment; it never clogs up, and is so arranged 
that the animal charcoal is easily got at for 
cleansing or renewal. 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 51 



Directiona. 

When the filter ceases to aot satisfaotorily, it may be detached 
from the pipe by ansorewing the union which is immediately above 
the cap of the filter, the filter taken ont of the cistern, and the char- 
coal removed and cleansed, or replaced by new. To effect this the 
cap of the filter must be removed by knocking the claws of the 
iron holding the cap down, round on the graduated edge to the 
thinnest part of it, when the openings in the edge will allow the 
iron being taken off and the cap then removed from the filter. 
The strainer must then be removed, after which the charcoal 
must be shaken out. 

It should be lefb to soak in lukewarm water for 
Ch2^^*^^ a short time, which will free its surface of or- 
ganic matter, and afterwards well washed in 
dean water. The water in which the charcoal is washed will 
always be black, and affords no guide to the charcoal being clean. 
After washing, the charcoal must be dried and sifted into two 
portions — ^No. 1, the very coarse ; No. 2, the remainder. 

First put in No. 1 (the very coarse charcoal) to 
^tOT ^ *^® the depth of 1 or \\ inches ; then the body of the 
charcoal, No. 2, may be put in, the filter being 
kept in constant motion by raising it a little on one side,, and 
allowing it to receive a slight downward jerk on whatever it 
may be standing, the filter being turned occasionally to ensure 
the motion being equally distributed. By this means a much 
larger body of charcoal may be got in, for after being apparently 
full many times it will be found still capable of holding more. 
The last 1 or 2 inches should be the remainder of No. 1 char- 
coal The strainer must be then replaced by agitating the filter 
as before described, and pressing it upon the charcoal, which will 
cause the charcoal to grftther well round the strainer. The cap 
and rubber-washer must be fixed as before, the iron daw knocked 
round carefully with a mallet to its original position, and it is 
ready for use. 

B 2 



52 FILTEBS. 

Atkini- ■*■ ''^^ excellent pocket eyphon- 

^*^' filter weighing only 8 ounces, some- 

what on the same 
principle, is also 
' made by Messieurs. 

Atkins and Sons, 62, 
Fleet Street, when 
the water is purified 
by passing through 
a block of moulded 
carbon, which is 

made perfectly po- 

Bypkou Filter. , , . n _ 

rous but not hollow. 



AtUna' Fooket lllter. 



FILTERS. 53 

Theee blocks will got dogrged sooner or later* 
^^"®^^'"* and the frequency of cleaning them depends npon 
fhe natore of the water filtered, some waters clogging the carbon 
sooner than others. They are, however, easily cleaned by simply 
washing them in hot water, brushing them with a soft brush, 
and, finally, blowing through them two or three times, to open 
the pores. When cleaned, they are equal to new, as only the 
surface grets clogged. When the operation of filtering is over, 
the ball should be blown through, to clear the pores from the 
impurities, and put away in the case as dry as possible. 

WEen cattle have to be watered from a well, 
or from holes dug in the sandy^ bed of a river, 
which is often the case in African travelling, 
having to bale out the water is an intolerable 
nuisance. I therefore devised the following 
arrangement, which Mr. Atkins, of 62, Fleet 
Street, has carried out most effectually. 

Into the well or pool I drop a filter, which is 
kept a foot or more below the surface by a float ; 
to this is connected a tube or suction hose at- 
tached to a small portable force pump, by 
which I draw the pure water from the well, 
and force it into a trough from which the cattle 
drink* 

By this system the water in the pool remains 



PUUF AND FILTEK. 



INDIA-BUBB£B BOAT. 55 

andisturbed snd clear, whilst if cattle were 
allowed to rush into it to drink, the mud would 
be etiired up, and the water rendered imfit for 
drinking until after it had settled. 

Were Government to adopt some such system 
in watering cavalry horses, etc., much trouble 
and inconvenience would be avoided, whilst the 
animals would thrive all the better for having 
filtered and pure water to drink. 



OordlnK'a Inflatable Indla^Bubber Boat. 
^. . This inventiou has proved invalu- 

at able to sportsmen and travellers, as 

boat of thifi description is very portable, 



66 INDIA-RUBBEB BOAT. 

and stands a great deal of wear and tear in any 
climate. 

For crossing or going down a river, they are 
all that can be desired ; but it is almost impos- 
sible to paddle them up stream or against a 
head-wind^ as they float so high out of the water. 



CHAPTER III. 



ARMAMENT. 

Pabt I. — Spobtikg Arms. 

A Sportsman's Battery— Westley Biohards' Breeoh-Loadisg Sys- 
tem, as applied to Sporting Arms— The Pin and Central- 
Fire Cartridges compared — ^The Introdnotion of the Breeoh- 
Loading System into England — ^Thirty Seasons for preferring 
Breeoh-Loading Guns and Bifles — ^The Bisadyantages of the 
Muzzle-Loading System — ^The Gtm Case and its Appurte- 
nances — Machines for Loading Cartridges — Cartridge Belts 
— Cartridge Magazines — Cartridge Carriers — Ghune Carriers. 

SUCCESS in '^the field/* whether in batde oj at 
the covert side, in a great measure depends upon 
the armament. 

A sportsman, explorer, or officer, proceeding on 
service to the Colonies, to be properly equipped, 
ought to have the following arms : 

1. A Doable-Barrel Breech-Loading Gun, 12 bore. 

2. A Double-Barrel Breech-Ijoading Bifle, 12 bore, 

3. A Double-Barrel Breech-Loading Holster Pistol. 

4. A Bevolver for his Belt. 



BREECH-LOAD EBS. 



Bneoh-liMdiiw Doable Onn, on WMtlerBioluTd*' Syitem. 



BREECH-LOAD ERS. 5 9 

For sporting purposes, I consider the best 
breech-loading system, both for guns and rifles, 
to be that of Mr. Westley Richards ; as its con- 
struction is a wonderful combination of strength 
and simplicity, and it is in every way preferable 
to any other system I have yet seen, " and their 
name is legion." 

A gun or rifle, on this system, is very similar in 
outward appearance, to an ordinary muzzle-loader, 
having bar or front-action locks, and the grip or 
fore-part being of wood. ( Vide Plate, page 58, 
Figs. 1 and 2.) 

The mechanical arrangement (vide Plate) is 
of a most safe and simple character. A self- 
acting spring latch (J, c. Fig. 2) secures the 
breech-end of the barrels, fitting into the solid 
iron after loading. The barrels are released by a 
simple action of the thumb, and the loading is 
eflfected with the greatest ease. 

The barrels are secured to the body of the gun 
by fastenings, both at the top and bottom, thus 
disposing of the strength to the greatest possible 



60 BREECH-LOADERS. 

advantage; whereas other systems of breech- 
loaders hare only one fastenings and that con- 
siderably below the centre or point of resistance. 

The connecting-piece between the barrels is a 
solid lump of steel (a), which, when the barrels 
are closed, dovetails on to the break-off (t. Fig. 3), 
and holds the two firmly together like a solid 
piece. Besides this improvement, that arm has 
a solid joint (as shown at g. Fig. 3, and A:, Fig. 4), 
which is infinitely stronger than the ordinary 
fastening, made with a loose pin screwed through 
the ends of the body; and it has also a keel, or 
wedge (A, in Fig. 3), fitting between the under 
part of the action^ which adds strength to the 
stock. 

The shooting of Mr. Westley Richards' guns 
and rifles is all that can be desired, as the in- 
variable success he has met with at Wimble- 
don and in the Gun Club contests proves. In 
finish and durability they are not to be surpassed. 

For sporting purposes I much prefer the pin 
cartridge system (vide Plate, page 61, Fig. a,) to 



PIN CARTBIDQE. 61 

^hat is called the central fixe* (vide Plate below. 
Fig. J), for the following reasons : 

First. — Without an indicator, which is con- 
stantly getting out of order, it is impossible to 
a b 



Section op Cbsteal-f 



know whether a gun is loaded or not, and acci- 
dents might happen from this cause. 



* The igtiition in the ao-oalled oectial-flre oaitridgeB ii not 
ra eentral oc instantuLsons than in the pin oortridge. 



62 CENTRAL-FIRE SYSTEM. 

Secondly. — A cartridge extractor, which weakens 
the breech, and is a complication liable to get out 
of order, is absolutely required in this system, 
and even then the exploded cartridges are some- 
times difficult to get out. 

Thirdly. — I have known a gun on the central- 
fire system to explode in the act of closing the 
breech, from the percussion cap protruding above 
the brass plane of the cartridge, and striking 
against the needle, which in some guns, even at 
half-cock, projects slightly. 

Fourthly. — Cartridges on the central-fire system 
are certainly more dangerous to load than pin 
cartridges, for should a grain of sand get under 
the cap, or if the cap should project above the 
brass plane of the cartridge, the act of ramming 
down the wads smartly might cause the percus- 
sion-powder to ignite and the cartridge to explode. 

Fifthly. — Pin cartridges are in more general 
use, and can be bought all over the Continent, 
whilst those on the central-fire system are difficult 
to be got except in London. 



BREECH-LOADERS. 63 

Thelntrodno. ^7 experience in breech-loading 

tion of the « . i ^ i i 

Breech-load- arms for sporting purposes dates back 

ing System. 

since the year 1856, when my attention 
was attracted to the La Fancheux system,* which 
is almost as great an era in gun-making as the 
invention of the copper cap. After two years' 
experience and repeated trials, in which, to my 
disgust, I found my favourite Manton, and 
others of my hardest-hitting muzzle-loading guns, 
equalled or beaten by breech-loaders, my scep- 
ticism vanished; I felt convinced the system 
was sound, and that sooner or later a complete 
revolution must take place in the manufacture of 
fire-arms. 

Under these impressions I endeavoured to 
concentrate my ideas on paper, for the benefit 
of my brother sportsmen, and my letter appeared 



* Although this system was inyented and eztensiyely adopted 
In Franoe several years previous to its introdnotion in this 
oonntry, the French workmanship of that day was, generally 
/speaking, so inferior, that no sportsman liked to shoot with a 
French gun. Even French sportsmen preferred English fire- 
azms. 



64 BREECH-LOADERS. 

in The Fields the Country Oentleman^s News* 
papery of the Slst October, 1857, in which I 
enumerated thirty advantages that breech-loaders 
possess over ordinary muzzle-loading guns. 
Little did I dream of *' the hornets* nest " in 
which this innovation placed me. I was attacked 
on all sides, by gun-makers, book-makers, and 
contumacious, pedantic old sportsmen, who all 
declared forsooth, ^^ that the Old Shekarry must 
be demented to think of adopting French fads 
and foreign gimcracks.** However, that party 
(whose motto is Frangas nonflectes) being some- 
what remarkable for pertinacity in his opinions, 
and inflexibility of purpose,* continued to dis- 
seminate his doctrine in spite of the sarcastic 

* The Old Shekany, when a veiy small boy, went with his 
Maternal to have his bumps felt. The phrenologist, a qnaint 
old card, went on with his work in a very matter-of-£ftot style 
nntU he came to a protuberance which seemed to puzzle him ; 
hei grunted, felt again, and then speaking to the boy who wrote 
to his dictation, said: ** No. 16. Firmness—immoderately large," 
{soUo voce to the Maternal), " amounting, I am afraid, madam, 
to obstinacy." The old lady, who, up to that time, had enter- 
tained doubts as to the truthfulness of phrenology, went home 
quite a oonyert. 



BREECH-LOADERS. 65 

insinuations of tribes of gun-sellers, who, doubt- 
less, had large stocks of muzzle-loaders on hand, 
and did not like to see the value of their stock 
go down in the market. ** The system is not 
safe ; the breech is not sound ; the guns will not 
shoot ; " was the cry', and at times the controversy 
became so warm, that the '^interested oppo- 
nents " became even unparliamentary in their 
language. 

Bets of all descriptions, to any amount, were 
offered, which, had^ the Old Shekarry been " an 
army contractor" instead of a soldier, he would 
have had to borrow capital to cover. At this 
crisis. General Charit^e, a celebrated old sports- 
man and a crack shot, came to the rescue, chal- 
lenged all comers in The Fields and offered to 
back his breech-loader, made by Lang, for a 
thousand pounds, against any muzzle-loader be- 
longing to the boisterous crew. This plucky 
offer, although never taken up, hushed the storm, 
the agitation was calmed, temperate discussion 
followed, trials were organised^ the subject was 

p 



66 BREECH-LOADERS. 

ventilated^ and, as a matter of course, the breech- 
loading system became a recognised institution in 
the sporting world. 

I have now used the breech-loader for twelve 
years, during which time I have shot a great deal 
in the worst climate for arms of any description 
(the West Coast of Equatorial Africa), and, after 
giving the system every trial that experience can 
devise, I have found no reason to alter my opinion 
as to its excellence and efficiency. 

Thirty Eeiisons ^^® *^^ ^^^^^ "^^7 ^ P^^^^' 

tSieSireeS^- ^^^ breech-loader to the ordinary 

muzzle-loader, which I gave in I%e 
Field newspaper in 1857, are — 
^^ , ^ 1. The extreme facility and quick- 
^'^'*^^- ness in the loading, whereby any 
person with a breech-loader may load and fire 
at least six shots in the same time that another 
with a common gun takes to load and fire 
two. 

2. Whilst shooting with a party in line, what 
a decided advantage the breech-loader has over 



BREECH-LOADERS. 67 

the common gun ! No halting the line to reload ; 
you fire, and continue moving on, loading with 
the greatest ease and celerity as you go. By this 
means the line is kept unbroken, and in cover 
the sportsmen are not exposed to the danger of a 
stray shot from any one lagging behind. What 
is more calculated to try the patience of a man 
than this continual stopping? No one likes to 
keep his friends waiting, and consequently reloads 
with the greatest expedition. In the hurry of 
the moment how often does a shot drop in the 
nipple, or some mistake take place in the loading ? 
to rectify which the line is delayed, and the 
game, perhaps already afoot, makes off. All this 
is avoided by the breech-loader. 
g ^ ^ . 8. The great comparative safety in 

^' using a breech-loader is undeniable. 
Never by any chance need you have the direction 
of your gun's muzzle pointed either towards 
yourself or your friends in loading. It should be 
kept in the direction you are going. 

4. You cannot make any mistake in the loadings 

F 2 



68 BBEECH-LOADEBS. 

such as leaving out or putting in two charges of 
powder or shot into one barrel. 

6. How many accidents have taken place from 
a sportsman^ in the haste or excitement of the 
moment, loading one barrel with the other on full 
cock, which the shock of ramming tight wads, or 
catching in the trousers or a twig, has caused to 
go oflFl There is no chance of this with a breech- 
loader* 

6. How many accidents does one hear of taking 
place with the common gun, from the pouring 
powder from a full flask down to the muzzle of a 
gun recently discharged, in which perhaps a bit of 
lighted tow, or, what is oftener the case, a bit of 
cork (got in the powder in taking the cork out of 
the canister) may remain. There is no chance of 
losing a hand in this manner vrith a breech-loader. 

Aocidenta *^' ^^^ ^® always enabled whilst 

^^^^*^ ®* loading to see clearly through your 
barrels, and are certain, each shot, that there is 
no obstruction or dirt got in, which is a great 
advantage, as many people have been injured by 



BREECH-LOADERS. 69 

guns bursting from the muzzle being accidentally 
plugged up with clay, which may have got in 
whilst jumping a ditch, climbing over a fence, or 
stumbling on an uneven turnip-field. 

8. From the formation of the cartridge, your 
shot cannot loosen or fall out whilst walking with 
the muzzle downwards. 

9. You have no chance of the nipple breaking, 
or being bothered with its stopping up. 

Advantages ^^' ^^^ °^*^^ ^^ * ^^7^^ shooting, 

whilst Shoot- i -lii-i 1 j'r i-i 

ing. when both barrels are discharged, do 

you mark a bird down: what an advantage the 
sportsman armed with a breech-loader has, in 
being enabled to walk up at once, loading as he 
goes, without ever taking his eyes from off the 
spot where the game settled ! 

Absence of ^^* Among Other advantages is the 
total absence of any flash or escape 
from the breech. Thus, in firing the second 
barrel on a damp day, the sight is not obstructed, 
from smoke hanging before the eyes. 

IS. There is much less report from a breech- 



70 BREECH-LOADERS. 

loader than from an ordinary gun^ &om the whole 

discharge taking place internally. 

13. There is no chance of some unlucky cap 

flying, and endangering your eyesight. 

14. There is very much less recoil 
LessReooiL 

than from an ordinary gun — a great 
advantage in a long day's shooting ; no blackened 
shoulders, no stiffiiess the day after. The reason 
of there being less recoil in a breech-loader than 
in a muzzle-loader of the same size and weight, is 
that its construction renders it necessary to have 
more weight of metal at the breech ; and also 
because at the hollow of the cartridge of the 
breech-loader there is a light roll of paper, 
about one-eighth of an inch in thickness, which 
(like the buffer of a railway carriage) gives 
with the action of the powder, and lessens the 
recoil. 

Not affected ^^' -^^^ ^^ damp, whilst out shoot- 
y ®* .«'• ijjg^ cannot affect or injure the charge 

or caps ; neither being exposed to the weather, in 
the same way the nipple of the ordinary gun is. 



V 



BREECH-LOADERS . 7 1 

No chance of miss-fires on that account with a 
breech-loader. 

16. The breech-loader takes very 

Cleaning. 

little time to clean; a piece of tow and 

an oiled rag run through the barrel is sufficient ; 
and by looking through them, it is very easy to 
be seen whether they are clean — a great advan- 
tage. Whereas, with an ordinary gun, by the 
act of reloading, the dirt and debris of the last 
discharge is forced into the breech or the nip- 
ple, and frequent washing out of the barrels is 
required. 
No Second ^'^' The carrying out of a second gun 

Gun required. • ^ • . j p j. 

^ IS obviated; for a sportsman can re- 
load his gun in most cases more quickly than his 
keeper can hand him another. I have always 
had an objection to having a keeper walking 
behind me with a loaded gun. Perhaps it may 
be a weakness I have ; but I always feel afiraid 
of his stumbling, and ** making game '* of me. 
Less to Carry. 18. The bother of carrying powder- 
flask, shot-bag, caps, wads, loading-rod, and nipple- 



72 BREECH-LOADERS. 

screw is avoided; none being required with a 
breech-loader, the cartridges being carried either 
in the pocket or in a waist-belt. 

Quickness in ^^* . Breech-loaders shoot quicker 
^ ^^' than muzzle-loaders, because there is 
no long communication (the nipple) between the 
point of ignition and the charge, the explosion of 
the cap taking place in the centre of the powder, 
which is inflamed almost simultaneously; for it 
is an error to suppose even that gunpowder ex- 
plodes instantaneously, as, however rapid its pro- 
gress, it takes a certain time in travelling firom 
the first grain to the last. 

Foul very ^^* Breech-loaders foul very little^ 

as the thick elastic mercurial waddings 
which enter the breech are fully a size larger 
than the bore of the muzzle; consequently, being 
driven through the barrel by the action of the 
powder, each discharge carries away any refuse 
or accumulation that may have been left by the 
previous one, and at the end of a long day's 
shooting the barrel is almost as free firom foul- 



BREECH-LOADERS. 73 

ness' as at the beginning; also^ the explosion 
of the charge does not take place in the breech^ 
but in the paper cartridge, which comes out 
uninjured, containing the debris of the burnt 
powder, which in the ordinary gun is drawn into 
the chamber and nipple every time it is reloaded, 
until the latter becomes clogged up, and miss- 
fires are the consequence. 
Advantages ^1* What an advantage it is, when 

whenLoad- ^ ^ • /» u 

uig- shooting in fens, swamps, or nee fields, 

to be able to load without being obliged to put 
the butt of your gun in the mud or water, 
whereby you wet and soil your clothes when 
you put it up to the shoulder, making yourself 
imcomfortable for the day. 

22. When shooting in dense covers, or perhaps 
when perched in the fork of a tree, or in a pit 
waiting by water, or a salt-lick for deer, bison, or 
other large game, what an advantage it is being 
able to reload with so very little change of 
position in a small space ! 

23. What an advantage to the Indian sports- 



V 



74 BREECH-LOADERS. ^ 

man who fires and reloads in a howdah^ moving 
and shaking from the motion of the elephant ! 

24. What an advantage to the elephant-hunter 
in South Africa, who is obliged to load and fire 
from his horse's back ; having to keep his eye 
perhaps on an infuriated wounded animal, to look 
out for obstructions in his path, and to reload his 
discharged piece. 

25. How often in the field does the noise of 
ramming down a tight wad, whilst reloading the 
ordinary gun, put up birds on all sides, who thus 
get away, to the sportsman's disgust! Not so 
with the breech-loader. What an advantage being 
able to load without noise is to the snipe-shooter, 
who often, after a hard day's blank fag, arrives 
on small insulated patches of grass alive with 
snipe, where he may perhaps fire a dozen shots 
without moving a single pace, and when every 
slightest movement and noise, caused by reloading, 
puts up dozens of birds all round, whom he has 
the mortification of hearing call " Scape, scape ! " 
as they collect in clouds and soar away. When 



BREECH-LOADERS. 75 

birds are thick, I fairly believe, all things consi- 
dered, that a sportsman armed with a breech- 
loader may easily kill twice as many birds as an 
equal shot with a common gun. 

26. What sportsman, after a heavy day's 
snipe-shooting under a hot sun, has not found 
his hands all sore and blistered, from constantly 
ramming down the charge? Never this with 
a breech-loader. What an advantage this is 
to the engineer officer, who has often in India 
to give up the amusement of snipe*shooting, 
because it makes his hands unfit to use the 
pen. 

27. Who does not feel that he can shoot better 
and with greater satisfaction, having his hands 
clean? whereas with a common gun they will in 
a few times loading get blackened with exploded 
powder, and sticky. Now, with a breech-loader, 
a man may put on a pair of white kid gloves, 
kill a good bag of game, and return with them 
scarcely soiled. 

28. In cold weather, who has not found the 



76 BREECH-LOADERS. 

loading of a common gnn and putting on caps 

distress him beyond measure, especially if he has 

been obliged to pull off his warm gloves before 

he is able to effect it at last ? No such bother 

with a breech-loader. 

„ . , 29. What an advantaire it is being 

ing Change, ^y^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^^ ^ ^ moment, 

and change the number of your shot. IJow 
often whilst after snipe do you come across duck; 
or, whilst after hares and partridges, do you start 
a herd of deer, a sounder of pig, or perhaps a 
royal tiger? 

SO. How pleasant it is being able to substitute 
ball for shot in a few seconds, instead of the old 
tedious manner of drawing your charge with 
the screw of your ramrod, which takes ten times 
as long, and makes noise enough to scare away 
the game. 

The sportsman can easily make up his own 
cartridges at the rate of about half-a-gross in an 
hour ; or, if he prefers it, he can purchase them 
all ready from any gunmaker. 



BREECH-LOADERS. 77 

OldPrein- When all the advantages of the 

^^' breech-loader are contrasted with the 

known disadvantages of the muzzle-loader, it is 
difficult to account for the prejudice that has 
existed against them for so many years ; for, not- 
withstanding that the present system was intro- 
duced by La Faucheux a quarter of a century 
ago, it is only lately that it has come into general 
use amongst sportsmen. Numerous objections 
have been urged against the system, but none 
appear to have had any substantial foundation ; 
and I shall not enter into them, although I am 
aware that there are many sportsmen of the old 
school who, from prejudice, will not even deign to 
give it a trial: with them, arguments and facts 
are both equally lost. 

In the pursuit of large game, breech- 

The Disadyan- 

iKazl^load- l^^^^^g Bims are infinitely preferable ; 
^e ys m. £^^ until the last few years the hunter 
was always obliged, when waging war with the 
denizens of the forest, to keep up a battery of 
several guns and rifles, which, to say nothing of 



78 BREECH-LOADERS. 

the expense of the first outlay and the continuat 
wear and tear, etc., was attended by several serious 
disadvantages, some half-dozen of which I shall 
enumerate. 

In the first place, two or three gun-bearers 
are required to each sportsman, whose duty it is 
to pass up the spare guns as fast as those in hand 
are discharged ; now, it is a great disadvantage 
for a hunter, when on trail or stalking, to have 
a number of persons at his heels, on account of 
the extra noise they must necessarily make in 
forcing their way through cover, which often 
gives alarm to the game, and prevents him from 
getting a shot. 

Secondly, it is a great drawback, whilst in the 
pursuit of some dangerous animal, when a faux 
pas might be attended with fatal consequences, to 
have any other than yourself to look after. 

Thirdly, it is not pleasant to have loaded fire- 
arms carried in the rear by inexperienced hands, 
with whom an accident from carelessness is as 
likely to occur as not. 



BREECH-LOADERS. 79 

Fourthly, it is not a comfortable feeling to 
have to depend upon the coolness and courage 
of your followers; and many a sportsman has 
found himself in an awkward position by his 
gun-bearers having been seized with a panic, 
and bolting, leaving him, with both barrels dis- 
charged, in the presence of a wounded and 
infuriated animal, when nothing but some lucky 
chance can prevent a catastrophe. 

Fifthly, it frequently happens, in hunting in 
different countries, that the sportsman (if he does 
not keep in his pay a shekar-gang of his own, 
which is expensive work) has to entrust his spare 
guns to men of whom he knows nothing, who 
may be tempted to decamp with them — not a 
very unfrequent occurrence.* 

Sixthly, it is a great annoyance to a tired 
sportsman, after a hard day's fag, to have to clean 
four or five double guns and rifles, which task he 



* Lieut. Bice, of the Bombay Aimy, lost all his guns in this 
maimer. 



80 BREECH-LOADERS* 

dare not entrust his followers to perform, as there 
are times when a miss-fire might be attended with 
the most serious consequences. 

Happily for the sportsmen of the present day, 
all these disagreeable contingencies may now be 
avoided by making use of rifles on the breech- 
loading system. Now, independent of gun- 
bearers, he can roam tlirough the forest alone, 
careless as to what animal he may meet, for he 
knows that, should his first shots not take deadly 
eflfect, he can reload in the twinkling of an eye, 
and keep up a running fire, against which no- 
thing can stand, instead of having to bolt under 
cover to reload (in case a spare gun is not at 
hand), returning breathless, and often with un- 
steady hand, from having to use sheer force in 
jamming an obstinate ball down a foul barrel. 
When mounted, a rifle on the breech-loading 
system has immense advantages, as it can be 
easily reloaded, without in any way interfering 
with the management of the horse; whereas 
with the old muzzle-loader the sportsman was 



PEBCDSSION SHEUa. 81 

entirely powerless whilst drawing his ramrod 
and ramming home the bullet. He who has 
once used a breech-loading gua or rifle will no 
more think of going back to a muzzle-loader 
than the crack marksman at Hythe would return 
to old " Brown Bess." 

Jaooba" Percussion shells invented by Captain 

Norton and improved by General 
Jacobs, are often used by sportsmen when shooting 
large game. They consist of copper cases, foil 
of gunpowder, encased in a leaden cylindro-coni- 
cal projectile, at the apex of which is the point 
of the shell containing percussion powder, that 
explodes on striking any object. ( Vide Plate.) 



a of JaoolM' SlielL Jaoobi' ShelL 



82 



GUN-CASE 



These shells are very useful for riflemen when 
engaged with field artillery, as ammunition 
caissons may be blown up by them. 

^ a A . ^^^ ^^^^ cases for guns or rifles are 
purtenancea. ^£ ^^^H leather, and they ought to be 

made as compact as possible. Messrs. Bussey and 
Co., of New Oxford Street, make most excellent 
cases, as well as all necessary accessories. 

The Gun-Case (Plate, page 83, Fig. 1) usually 
contains : 



The Banel Cleaner, Fig. 2. 

The Cartridge Loading Machine, Fig. 3. 

Measures for Powder and Shot, Fig. 2, page 82 ; Fig 4, page 83. 

A Cartridge Extractor, Fig. 1, page 82. 

A Felt Breech-Cleaner. 

A Cartridge-Carrier, Plate, page 86. 

An Oil-Bottle, Lock-Brash, Scratoh-^rosh, and Tnrnsorew. 





AND APPOETENANCES. 



OnnOMe and Api 



84 CABTRIDGE U)AD£B. 



Kaohino for Doading Oaitridgia. "Bnaaey'B Patanf* 

Sportsmen who load their own cartridges re- 
quire a machine for the purpose. That invented 
by Mr. George Bussey is one of the best, as its 
construction is so simple that it can scarcely get 
out of order; the cartridges can he rapidly 
leaded, and it is so compact &at it will fit into 
any ordinary gun-case. 



DIRECTIONS FOR LOADING. 85 



Directions for Loading Cartridges, 



1st. Screw the firame of the maohine to a table very firmly. 

2zLd. Insert a case in each chamber of the holder, and close* the 
Hd. 

3rd. Charge each case saooessi7el7 with powder* and then 
insert the six wads; 

4th. Bring the holder parallel with the frame, taking care that 
the first cartridge is exactly under the plunger, drive down the 
wad by a blow on the plunger with the palm of the right hand, 
using the left to sb'de the holder along, and so bring each car- 
tridge exactly under the plunger, till the six have been rammed 
home. 

5th. Repeat the processes Nos. 3 and 4 for the shot. 

6th. Now take the holder horizontally in the leffc hand, and sub- 
mit each cartridge to the screw successiyely, after which they 
drop out of the chambers by turning the hinged Ud of the holder. 

To load quickly without spilling, the Tessels containing the ^ 
powder and shot should be just the height of the cartridge case 
(t. e., about 2| inches.) 

Any sportsman, with a little practice, may load 150 cartridges 
within the hour. 



86 CARTRIDGE BELT. 




Bpruig Oartrldge Belt, "BuBser'a fatent." 

The BpriDg cartridge-belt, inTented by 
Mr. George Bussey, is one of the best and 
most convenient yet introduced. It is worn 
under the coat and carries from 30 to S6 
cartridges. 



Cartridge Oftriier. 



CARTRIDGE MAGAZINE. 87 

Kjeper-^ Car- ^^ foregoing shows the best 

*^'^<^'^ kind of cartridge case for a keeper 
to carry reserve ammuiiition, 



Mugwrine. 

_^^^ Loaded cartridges are best carried 

^*^'°°* in a compact magazine, holding from 
SOD to 500, similar to the foregoing Plate, as it 



88 



KEEPER S CARTRIDGE CASE. 



is fitted with regulating straps, which prevent 
the cartridges from being damaged by shaking 
about^ as is too often the case with other methods 
of stowage. 



Qame 
Carriers. 



The following cuts show the best 
kinds of game carriers, which, al- 
though very simple, I much prefer to nets and 
bags, as the air being allowed to circulate about 




Game Carrier. 



the game, it is kept cooler, and does not turn 
putrid so soon as it would do, if all huddled 
together in a bag. I like to have my game 
kept long enough to become tender, but^ not 



GAME CABBIEB8. 



89 



being of the yiilture tribe, do not &nc]r de* 
composed meat 




CHAPTER IV. 



ARMAMENT. 

Fabt IL — ^MiUTABT Abus. 

• 

The Importance of " Keeping Pace with the Times"— Brown Bess 
—The Percussion Musket— The Enfield Rifle— The Westley 
Bichards' Breech-loading Bifle and Cartridge — The Westley 
Bichards' Central FiM Military Bifle and Cartridge— The Snider 
Bifle and the Boxer Cartridge — Different Systems of Bifling 
compared— Holster Pistols — Colt's Bepeating Arms — ^Dean's 
Bevolver — ^Tranter's Breech-loading Bevolver — ^"The Whis- 
perer" — ^Breech-loading Mountain Guns— Jacobs' Shells. 

At last, in spite of the trammels of red tape 
and old-fashioned official routine, ''the powers 
that be " have become aware of the fact, that in 
order to maintain our national prestige they must 
keep pace with the times ; and although Govern- 
ment are still very slow in recognising real merit 
in new inventions, and look upon every contem- 



BEOWN BESS — PERCUSSION MUSKET, 91 

plated change as an officious innovation^ still 
much has been done to benefit the service, more 
especially as regards the armament of our land 
and sea forces,, and one of the most efficient 
reforms has been the adoption of the Snider 
breech-loader. 

One of the greatest generals of the 

Brown Bess. 

past. Sir Charles J. Napier, the con- 
queror of Scinde, believed in the efficiency of 
the old Brown Bess of his day with its flint-lock 
and bright barrel ; for he had seen many a glo- 
rious field won by men armed only with that 
weapon, and knew no other. 
-- p The first great change for the better 

Bion e . ^^g ^YiQ introduction of the percussion 

musket, which was regarded with such suspicion 
by the authorities, that, in the first instance, I 
remember only one company per regiment was 
entrusted with it. Time passed, and the new 
arms did good execution in their day, for with 
them the decisive battles of the Sutlej and the 
Punjab were won. 



92 ENFIELD RIFLE. 

rm. «_irjj THaiiks, however, to the late Duke 

TheEimad ' ' 

®* of Newcastle, then Secretary of State 

for Warr, and the right man in the right place, in 
spite of the tenaciousness of ancient prejudices, 
the grooved lore was issued to the line, first the 
Mini^, and subsequently the Enfield; and this 
country is indebted to that wise minister for the 
most brilliant victory of modem times, as it was 
solely by the deadly efficiency of their volleys that 
a handful of British troops were enabled to hold 
their own, and repulse overpowering numbers of 
a brave and determined enemy on the heights of 
Inkerman. 
Breech-load- Ten years have rolled on since that 

Sng Rifles 

adopted. murky morning when the soldiers* 
battle was won, and another era in our national 
armament is at hand, for the weapon that did us 
such good service at Inkerman has been dis- 
carded, and Government are arming the whole of 
our army and navy with breech-loaders. 

The repeated warnings of the press, to whom 
be all honour for its wise foresight and unceasing 



^ 



BREECH-LOADING RIFLE. 98 

watchfulness over the safety and honour of the 
country, together with the sad results of the late 
Danish and Austrian campaigns, have done much 
to open the eyes of the authorities, and make 
them aware, that even the bravest of troops, 
equipped with antiquated weapons, cannot hold 
the most defensible positions against the attack 
of an enemy whose arms combine every improve- 
ment of the age. 

It is to be hoped that these unfortunate 
campaigns will serve as a warning to future 
ministers, and prevent any false economy, old 
prejudices, red-tape, or procrastinating official 
routine interfering with the effective maintenance 
of our national defences, and the efficient equip- 
ment of our land and sea forces, according to 
the march of the age, and the improvements that 
science is continually making. If Great Britain 
is to be maintained as a first-class power, she 
must, as in days of yore, ever be prepared 
against an emerg^cy. Her supremacy was won 
by force of arms^ and by force of arms it must be 



94 CAVALRY CARBINE. 

kept. The time has not come for the sword to 
be turned into a ploughshare ; and as we wish for 
peace, we should be prepared for war. 

Diplomacy, although useful in its way, should 
not be our sole dependence when the honour, 
safety, and liberty of action of the country are 
concerned. As a nation, we are not famous in 
that line — it never was our forte. We have 
often lost by treaties the advantages gained by 
the sacrifice of our best blood ; for, whenever a 
question has arisen, our diplomatists have found 
their match ; and the nation has had to fall back 
upon that which has never failed her — the 
staunch hearts and bull-dog courage of her stal- 
wart sons. 

Westley ^^'^ excellent arm [which has been 

Breech-load- adopted for some years in the cavalry, 

ingCayaJiy 

Carbine. and of which Government have over 
20,000 in store] is extremely simple and uncom- 
plicated in construction, does not easily get out 
of order, and, in case of accidbnt, can easily be 
repaired by a regimental Armourer. 



CAVALRY CARBINE. 95 

It can be loaded with great rapidity with the 
impossibility of any accident occurring, does not 
foul after heavy firing, is of great penetration, 
and, at long ranges, great accuracy of shooting 
can be obtained. 

The total absence of foulness was satisfactorily 

proved by the experiments made by Government, 
when several hundred rounds were fired from 
this system without cleaning, and there was no 
more foulness in the barrel or greater recoU ex- 
perienced in the last shot than the second. 

This is easily accounted for, as the greased 
wad that lubricates the barrel at every discharge 
is of two sizes larger than the diameter of the 
barrel at the muzzle; consequently, whatever 
remains of the exploded powder or paper from 
t the cartridge of the last shot is driven out of the 
barrel by the succeeding one. 

For seven years in succession the chief prizes 
for breech-loading arms have been carried oflf 
by Mr. Westley Bichards' rifles, which proves 
their extreme accuracy of shooting,. 



CATALET CAEBINEi 



CAVALRY CARBINE. 97 

The Plate on page 96, Fig. 1, represents the 
rifle closed. The small lump marked a is the 
only projecting part; in all other respects, the 
arm has the appearance of an ordinary rifle. 

Fig. 2 represents a section of the breech- 
loading parts. 

A is a gun-metal plunger which enters the 
breech-end of the gun. 

B is a solid iron block, with an inclined plane 
at the back c. 

There is a second inclined plane at the point 
e; this throws the block b back into its 
place, and makes it fit close against the end of 
the box F, which is also undercut, to fit the 
inclined part of the block b, at the point c. The 
block has a sliding motion to allow this action to 
take place. 

By this it will be seen that the greater the 
pressure on the block and plunger, the safer the 
,part becomes; the inclined plane holding the lever 
Armly down in its place. 

B represents the cartridge. 

H 



98 CENTRAL FIRE RIFLE. 

Westley ^^* ^^^dey Richards has also in- 

Central Fire vented a most excellent central-fire 

Military 

Rifle. military breech-loading rifle, containing 

the ignition in the cartridge, which promises to su- 
persede all other systems. But notwithstanding 
that the Duke of Cambridge's prize for breech- 
loading arms had been won for seven years in 
succession with rifles of his manufacture, he with- 
drew it from competition at the late Wimbledon 
meeting this year, because Mr. Henry's rifle, 
which is not a military arm, was put in compe- 
tition with it. 

Compared with the Snider Enfield, it has the 
advantage of being considerably lighter. The 
Snider Enfield and sixty rounds of ammunition 
weighing 2i lbs. heavier than "Westley Eichards' 
rifle and its sixty rounds. 

For rapidity of fire it cannot be surpassed, as 
twenty shots per minute can easily be fired with 
iti and its accuracy of shooting is the same as 
that of his well-known breech-loader, which super- 
seded the Terry rifle in the Services, and has 



CENTEAL FIBE EIFLE. 



WecUey BidhorclB' Cantral rira HUitarr Bi£e. 
carried off the first breech-loading prize every 
year in succession since the Wimbledon meeting 



100 ' CENTRAL FIRE RIFLE. 

was established in 1860, and which up to this 
time has never been beaten. 

The Plate on page 99 illustrates the system ; 
and by comparing it with the Plate on page 96, 
it will be" seen that the action is in many respects 
similar to Mr. Westley Richards' former rifle, 
the chief difierence being that the sliding plunger 
(Plate, ad) is perforated, and contains a needle, 
or rather striker, iJ, that receives the blow of 
the hammer, ef, upon a projecting head, c, and 
which, sliding forward, explodes the cap con- 
tained in the felt wad {vide Plate, page 102), 
attached to the cartridge. 

These felt wads are, after the insertion of the 
caps, dipped in tallow, and, by a very simple 
arrangement, a portion of this valuable lubri- 
cating agent is driven back by the side of the 
striker after each discharge, coming out through 
a hole in the side of the plunger, in regular ro- 
tation, and keeping every part in good working 
order. 



CENTRAL FIRE RIFLE. 101 

A very ingenious lever, e^ drives back the 
striker when the action is opened, by lifting up 
the arm,y*, and thus all danger of an explosion is 
removed when the plunger is depressed. 

There is no spring in the whole action, which is 
simple, uncomplicated, and in no way liable to 
get out of order. 

Upwards of 10,000 rounds have been fired out 
of one of these rifles without cleaning, scarcely 
ever missing fire, and the arm is still serviceable 
and fit for work. 

Its accuracy of shooting is 7*10 inches at 600 
yards, which is all that can be desired. 

These cartridges axe so simple in their con- 
struction that, in case of need, soldiers can easily 
make them. 

The Plate on page 102, Fig. 1, shows the cart- 
ridge as ready for insertion into the rifle, whilst 
Fig. 2 is a section of the same. 

Fig^ 3, showing the action of the ignition, is 
twice the size of the Government bore. 

Oy the striker or needle, strikes the head of an 



CARTRIDGES. 



WosOar Sicfluwda' Cartddco. 



CARTRIDGES. 103 

ordinary percussion cap, 5, against the point of an 
iron anvil, a, wMch is confined in its position by 
a copper broad-flanged cap, ccccy at the ex- 
tremity of which there is an aperture, h A, through 
which the flame is driven which ignites the charge, 

D d is 3, soft thick wad, e e o, thin hard one, 
which are sown together, and keep the flanged 
cap, c Cy and its contents in position. 

The whole arrangement is very simple, and 
there is scarcely any possibiKty of a miss-fire. 

The " Boxer" ^^^7 Brothers are now manufactur- 
^^' ing these cartridges under the Patent 
of Colonel Boxer, E.A., of Woolwich Arsenal, 
for Snider and other systems of breech-loading 
rifles taking central fire cartridges of '677 and 
•451 bore, they having been adopted by Govern- 
ment for use with the converted Snider Breech- 
loading Bifle. 

The inventor states that they possess the fol- 
lowing advantages : 



CAKTRIDGEa. 




"Boxbe" 


Section of 


Carikwob, 




■677 Bo&B. 


Cartkidgb, 



■S77B 

1. The principle of construction admits of such 
a difference between the size of the chamber and 
that of the cartridge, that no rough usage, to 
which the ammunition is liable, can interfere with 
facility of loading. 

2. The withdrawal of the empty case is effected 
with perfect ease, even under adverse circum- 



CARTRIDGES. 105 

3. It cannot possibly swell by damp. 

4. It may be jcrushed or disfigured to almost 
any extent, without danger of breakage or escape 
of gas. 

6. It is practically waterproof, that is to say, 
it will withstand exposure to damp for almost any 
period, and it may be completely immersed in 
water for some time without injury. 

6. It is not liable to deterioration from the 
effects of climate in any part of the world. 

7. It is sure of ignition. 

8. It is not liable to explosion in bulk ; that is 
to say, the ignition of one or more cartridges 
will not extend to the remainder, indeed, a 
quantity of loose powder may be exploded in 
the centre of a barrel of ammunition without 
igniting any of the cartridges. 

9. It excels in accuracy of shooting. 

10. It is not liable to foul the rifle even under 
the most adverse circumstances. 

The superior qualities of the Boxer cartridge 
have been fully established by the results of a 



106 CARTRIDGES. 

series of experiments made by the Government. 
In these trials, the accuracy of shooting was 
better than that with the muzzle-loading ammu- 
nition, and only three miss-fires occurred out of 
the 10,000 rounds fired. 

The fouling from 1000 consecutive rounds did 
not appreciably affect the accuracy of shooting 
or facility of loading. 

After the cartridges had been immersed for 
six days in very wet sawdust no miss-fires 
occurred, and the loading was performed with 
the greatest ease in every case. The cartridges 
were bent, indented, and injured in various ways, 
without affecting the ease of loading or accuracy 
of shooting ; they were shaken loose in a soldier's 
pouch for a month, and came out perfectly ser- 
viceable, and they were subjected to different 
atmospheric conditions artificially created with- 
out sustaining any injury. 

As regards the safety of the Boxer cartridge. 
Captain Majendie, in his lecture at the B. XT. S. 
Institution, stated as follows ; 



RIFLING. 107 

'^ I have several times exploded one cartridge 
in a barrel without igniting the remainder. I 
have fired ten at once, and no more exploded. I 
have gone further, and placed a barrel of 700 
cartridges inside an iron cylinder tightly screwed 
down, and have exploded, a quarter of a pound 
of powder in the midst, and although the screws 
were broken and the lid blown oflf with violence, 
and some of the cartridges strangely distorted, 
not a single cartridge was ignited." 

To obviate any danger of these cartridges 
exploding accidentally by rough usage in transit, 
the anvil and chamber are purposely arranged 
so that they can scarcely be ignited except by a 
properly constructed rifle. Cartridges made to 
ignite very easily are extremely dangerous, being 
liable to explode when closing the rifle, in addi- 
tion to the chance of ignition in transit. 

Arms are still in a transition state, 

Bifling. 

and it is yet a matter of doubt as to 
which system of rifling is the best. 



108 THE WHITWORTH RIFLE. 

Whitw rth* From the numerous experiments I 
^^®^°^ have made and witnessed, I consider 
that, for accuracy of fire ^ nothing equals that 
of Mr Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester ; 
his rifle with the hexagonal lore and elon- 
gated projectile having " distanced " every 
other at long ranges in the course of expe- 
rimental trials lately made at the School of 
Musketry at Hythe ; besides which (he trajectory 
is lower than any other system. He uses a short 
barrel, having an hexagonal bore and a very 
quick turn; for whereas the Enfield rifle has 
only one turn in 6 ft. 6in., and therefore only half 
a turn in the barrel of the Enfield, which is 3 ft. 
8 in., he has a 45-inch bore, with one turn in 
20 inches, which rotation is sufficient with a 
bullet of flie requisite specific gravity. Mr. 
Whitworth has reached such a pitch of accuracy, 
that in a shed excluded from the influence of 
wind, and firing from a beautifully-contrived 
rest, at 500 yards he can put any number of con<* 



THE WHITWORTH RIFLE. 109 

secutive balls within a space less than that 
occupied by a five-shilling piece ; and it is said 
that he will not be contented until he can throw 
a bullet from the barrel of one rifle into the 
barrel of another placed at 600 yards' distance. 
His ordinary rifles are guaranteed, in the hands 
of a good marksman^ to be true at the same 
distance within eight inches. When his rifle 
was tested at Hythe with a Regulation Enfield, the 
eflSciency of the one as compared with the other 
was as twenty to one: Colonel "Wilford saying 
that the Whitworth was better at 800 yards than 
the Enfield at 500. Beyond 1100 yards the 
Enfield must cease firing even at large masses, 
while Whitworth's can do business at ^000. In- 
deed, rifling seems in its infancy, and range must 
only cease with the power of the human eye to 
take an aim. If Mr. Whitworth applies his 
peculiar principle of rifling to a breech-loader, he 
will produce the most finished weapon of the 
day. 



110 /elliptical firing. 

EUiDtioal ^^' Lancaster's elliptical rifling 

^' gives excellent practice, and the bare 

being smooth, is not liable to harbour rust or 
wear away, and is easily cleaned. 

Mr. Henry, of Edinburgh, has lately turned 
out most excellent arms of octagonal bore, the 
shooting of which can scarcely be surpassed, and 
the success they have won at the Wimbledon 
meeting has gained him a great name for careful 
workmanship.. 
TT 1 X TV X r For active service in the field, as 

HolsterPistols ' 

an vo vers, ^^jj ^ g^^, gp^j-^j^g purposes, I much 

prefer double-barrel breech-loading pistols for 
the holster to any revolver yet brought out, 
as it carries a very much larger bullet, which 
will disable even when it may not strike a vital 
part. 

The sketch on the opposite page shows a holster 
pistol made by Westley Kichards, which is all 
that can be desired. 

For campaigning purposes abroad, when with 



HOLSTER PISTOL. 



WMtley Bioharda' HoMer nstoL 



112 HOLSTER PISTOL. 

the regular troops, I should prefer to have my 
holster pistols, as well as my service rifle, on the 
cetittal-£re system, and of the same gauge as 
the breech-loadiBg rifle issued to the troops, 
as I could then make use of the regulation 
cartridges. 

For the hobter pistols, however, some of the 
powder should be extracted, or the recoil will he 
too great. 

Mr. Holland, of Bond Street, has turned his 
attention to holster pistols on this system, and the 
following sketch shows his last improvements. 



HoItond'B EolfUr FlftoL 



BEVOLVINQ PISTOLS. 113 

For msnj years 
Colt's reTolving 
arms have been 
considered to be 
the most efficient 
weapons of tbeir 
kind for service 
in the field, having 
stood every test 
that practical ex- 
perience can de- 
vise. In the Cri- 
mean, the late 
Continental J and 
the American 
wars, they have 
been very general- 
ly used, and have 
always proved to 
be most reliable 
and certain wea- 

OolM BerOMiig EbrtOL P^^- 

1 For superiority 



114 REVOLVING PISTOLS, 

of material and workmanship, safety, simplicity, 
durability, accuracy, and celerity of fire, great 
length of range, force of penetration, they possess 
important advantages both for public and private 
service. The barrel is rifle-bored. The lever 
ramrod renders wadding or patch unnecessary, 
and secures the charge against moistur-e, or be- 
xjoming loose by rough handling or hard riding. 
The hammer, when at full cock, forms the sight 
by which to take aim, and is readily raised to 
full cock by the thumb, with one hand. 

A very effectual provision is made to prevent 
the accidental discharge of Colt's fire-arms whilst 
being carried in the hand, holster, pocket, or 
belt. Between each pair of nipples (the position 
of which secures the caps in their places) is a 
small pin or notch, and the point of the hammer 
is let down upon it ; so that if the hammer be 
powered on the pin, or into the notch, the 
cyUnder is prevented from revolving, and the 
hammer is not in contact with the percussion 
cap, so that, even if the hammer be struck vio-^ 
lently by accident, it cannot explode the cap; 



REVOLVER WITH CARBINE BREECH. 115" 

The Carbine Breech 
attached to the 8-mch 
Barrel Array and Navy- 
Revolver, Colt's latest 
improvement (vide 

Plate) is one hy which 
the pistol may he 
made an efficient substi- 
tute for the carbines 
now in general use, 
without detracting from 
the special and peculiar 
qualities of the revolver. 
The weapon may he 
ased with great facility 
and convenience as a 
carbine; and when not 
required for such use, 
the pistol may be re- 
moved and placed in 
the holster on the hody, 
the butt or stock being 
allowed to swing from 



116 colt's pistols 

a strap or sling over the back, or at the side. 
An obvious advantage of this fitting is that^ 
when in action^ if all the charges of a repeating 
arm have been fired^ the discharged pistol may 
be instantly exchanged for the other of the pair 
in the holster. 

Before loading blow the oil and dost ont of the 

Direotioiis nipples, 
fornsing 

Colt's Great care should be taken, when Coifs oar- 

Pistols, tridges are not nsed, that all the balls are per- 

fect, and fit the chambers snngly, otherwise the 
charges may jar out, and more than one chamber be discharged 
^t once. 

Ist. Draw back the hammer to half-cock, which 

For Loading allows the cylinder to tnm in one direction freely, 
qnd Firing. 

2nd. Holding the muzzle erect, place a charge 

of powder in, and a ball nx>on the month of the chamber. 

3rd. Tom the cylinder nntil the loaded chamber is nnder the 
rammer, and force the ball with the lever below the month of 
the chamber; if the ball fits, the chamber is then hermetically 
dosed and the powder protected from water, damp, and sparks 
of fire. 

4th. Beyerse the arm and place the peronssion caps on the 
nipples. 

5th. Draw the hammer to full cock, and the arm is ready foe 
fixing. 



colt's pistols. lit 

Set fhe hammer al; half-oook, and drive out the 
ForOleamng. j^^y aa fiur as the screw will allow, remove the 
barrel, which may be done by the aid of the lever pressing down 
the rammer npon the partitions between the chambers of the 
cylinder. Wash the cylinder and barrel in warm water, dry and 
oil them thoronghly, oil freely the base-pin on which the cylinder 
revolves, then replace the parts. 

1st. Set the hammer at half-oook, and drive 
Look to ^^^ ^® ^®^ ^' wedge which holds the barrel and 

Pieces, Clean cylinder to the look &ame, and remove the 
^^^ pari». 

2nd. Tom ont the bottom and two rear screws which faatesD. it 
to the trigger goard and look frame, and remove the stock. 

3rd. Loosen the screw that fastens the main spring to the 
gnard, and tnm the spring from nnder the hammer. 

4th. Tnm ont the three screws which £uten the guard to the 
lock frame, and remove it. 

5th. Tnm ont the screw, and remove the doable spring which 
bears upon the trigger and bolt. 

Gth. Tun ont the side screws, and remove the trigger and 
bolt. 

7tiL Tnm ont the hammer screw, and remove the hammer 
with the hand attached, by drawing it downward ont of the lock 
frame. Clean and oil all the parts thoronghly, and restore them 
to their plaoee in the reverse order of separation. 



Besides revolving pistols both for the belt 
and holster, which have been adopted by the 
British and the United States War Depart- 



118 colt's fieb-armb. 

mente, carbines and rifies 
are abo manufactured 
upon the same principle ; 
which, in time of need, I 
have found to be most 
efficient weapons in every 
respect. 

The Colt's Fire Anna 
Company, of 14, Pall Mall, 
are making experiments 
with a new breech-loading 
revolver, which, from all 
accounts, is a most efficient 
military weapon, likely to 
supersede all other systeroa, 
in which certain defects are 
known to exist, that have 
hitherto prevented Euro- 
pean or American Go- 
vernments JTom adopting 
any breech-loading revolver 

yet introduced. 
Bevolrar Blfle. 



ADAMS' REVOLVER. 119 

Adams* '^^^ revolver has of late years been 

very generally adopted by officers in 
the Army and Navy, and in comparison with the 
old muzzle-loading pistol, it is a tolerably efficient 
arm, although far from being as good as is 
required for a service pistol. 

It is unnecessarily heavy, carries too small a 
bullet, and cannot be depended upon for accuracy 
of shooting. This latter drawback is, however, 
chiefly occasioned by extreme carelessness in the 
manufacture, the barrels being irregularly bored^ 
and the locks not properly regulated. 

The patent having expired, these pistols are 
got up as cheaply as possible by small Birming- 
ham houses, who make fire-arms wholesale, not 
to shoot, but to sell. 



130 CARTEIDGES. 



BerolTer BUn Oartililg« and Beotlon. 

g^. This cartri^e (vide Plate, above) 

^"^^'*"' the iuTention of Captain Montague 

HayeB, is the beat for both Colt*8 and Dean's 

revolver, as the arm may be exposed to any 

TFeather without danger of the powder of the 

chaise getting wet. 

I prefer a breech-loading revolver 
Berolrei. 

on Tranter's system to any other yet 

brought out, as it is less complicated and handier 

to load, although hy no means perfect, as it might 

be made much mote serviceable if the barrel 

were shorter and the gai^e very much larger. 

The bullet carried by the present arm is much 

too email to be effective. 



INSTBUCTI0N8 FOE LOADING. 121 



Baise the hammei till the tnggei &]!■ Into Ilia 
(^L^^^ llwt bent, open the dueld on tha dde, and put* 
autridge in eech hole of the chamber; olose tba 
shield, Bod the loading is complete. The outridgea oan be -with* 
.diawn reodil; with the fingere, if not deiii«d to be kept loaded. 
After the cartiidgei have been flied, the empt7 oaua can be le- 
moved with the oleauing-rod. The piatol can be oanied, irhm 
loaded, at "half-oook" faraafetj. The outiidges ahonld be weU 
coTered with lubricating oompoBitum, before pladng tliem in the 
ohambers. The pistol ahonld be well oiled after n«e. 
BireotionB for Bemore the itook b7 taking oat tlie two aeieiK 
^^t^. which foaten it to the frame, aUowing the top 
Patting ttrt'p to remain in ibe atook. Take off the main 

Together. spring bj placing the left thomb on tie bent part, 
at tiiesame timepladngatnmserewnndertlieexttemitTof the 
short side, and gentl; lift it off the honk. Take out tlie two 
screws which hold the gnard, and lift ont tiie trigger^prii^, 
which win then be loose. Take ont the hammer-pin and the 
hammer, obserring to prees the lifting oatob from the hammer 
with B email tninBorew. Take ont the trigger pin, whioh will 
releaae Uie trigger and works attached to it. Take ont tlia 
detent catch. Press down the lever oatoh, whioh will release tba 
rod, and also tba ohBmbac; ottltadtambetmaf be lemoredfint 



122 "the WHI8PEEEE." 

by preauug down the lever catdi, and at the uzoe time drawing 
the oentre rod. 

To pat ths rerolvei together Bgain, oloui and veil oil ereiy 
pMt. Put in the centra rod, than pat in the chamber. BepUca 
the detent oatoh, then the hammer, obserring that the aviTel is 
properly plaoed in it. Attach the olawi of the main apring to 
the swivel : preea down the main apring into its place on the 
hook with the fingerH ; affix the works to the trigger ; replaoe it, 
taking oare that the lifting Oitch la in &ont of the hammer, 
Geplaoe the tri^er-apring, aorew on the guard and the atook. 



" niB Wbiapetet ; " ft iit>4IoUeT. 

"The ^"^ araif which was built for me 

'*^^^" by Mr. H. Holland, of Bond Street, 
after my own design, is a rifle mounted on 
wheels, so as to be easily drawn by one man 



BREECH-LOADING GUNS. 123 

over any kind of country with my wigwam 
and ammunition. Taken to pieces, it all 
packs on one mule. This " rib- tickler/' as 
a Yankee sportsman called it, was built for 
me about three years ago for service in Central 
Africa, and it is a most formidable arm either 
against man or beast. It bums twelve drachms 
of powder, and throws a cylindro-conical bullet 
weighing half-a-pound, or a shell. 

Breech-loading one- or two-pounder guns, 
mounted on such carriages, would be very ser- 
viceable on service in the field, as those con- 
structed by Mr. AVliitworth, of Manchester, make 
excellent practice with shot and shell at 2000 
yards ; and with a dozen of such pieces, I would 
undertake to silence all the artillery of King 
Theodore. They are superior to rockets, which 
I class in the same category with " dollar" trade 
guns made for the African market — as dan- 
gerous to the man who fires them as to the party 
who is shot at. Their course is so erratic, and 



124 BREECH-LOADING GUNS. 

their practice so uncertain, that^ although they 
may frighten savages^ they rarely leave many 
skins on the grass ; in fact^ their bark is much 
worse than their bite. 



CHAPTER V. 



ARMAMENT. 

Part HI. — On the Selection of Arms. 

Arms made to Sell and not to Shoot— Inferior Anns False Policy 
— On the Selection of Arms— First-class Arms the Cheapest 
in the End— Locks— The Testing of Guns and Bifles— The 
Proper Bend and Length of Stock— Confidence inspired by 
Good Arms. 

For the present day, the market 
" Caution." 

Arms made to ^ deluged with arms that are made 
^ * to sell, and not to shoot ; and the 

public should be on their guard, so as not to 
allow themselves to be taken in by spurious 
imitations; for there are unscrupulous vendors 
who do not hesitate to engrave the names of first- 
class gunmakers upon guns of inferior workman- 
ship, and sell them to the uninitiated as ^^ bar- 



126 INFERIOR GUNS. 

gains." Young sportsmen^ in selecting a gun, 
should always go to a maker of note, who, for the 
sake of his own credit and reputation, would not 
allow an arm that id unsound, or of inferior work- 
manship, to leave his establishment bearing his 
name, which, in JirsUclass «7ork, is always eti' 
grated in full, with address. He may have to 
pay a long figure in comparison with the cost of 
the inferior article, and, perhaps, something for 
" the name ; " but he is sure of a good weapon, 
which will prove far better worth the money in 
the long run, and need not be apprehensive of 
accidents from defective workmanship or unsound 
material. 

, ^ j^ J, Inferior guns, ^' made to sell," are 

"^* now-a-days got up so well, that at first 

sight they resemble A 1 guns of best material and 
first-class workmanship ; but the practical sports- 
man, on taking them in hand, soon discovers the 
counterfeit There is no music in the locks; the 
strength of the mainsprings, as well as the pull of 
the triggers, is unequal; the barrels ar^ imperfectly 



CHEAP GUNS. 127 

bored, or rough and unpolished in the interior, 
and perhaps the gauge shows that they are not of 
exactly the same calibre. Again, the lock-plate 
and mountings are not fitted and let in with 
that peculiar nicety that distinguishes first class 
London work ; and the stock, in spite of a thick 
coat of French polish and ramish, betrays green- 
nesSy being made of unseasoned wood, I have 
seen some of these inferior guns throw shot 
pretty fairly to begin with, but, after a short time, 
they invariably fall off both in strength and regu- 
larity of shooting, become shaky, and even dan- 
gerous ; for the locks (being made of soft metal, 
instead of the best tempered steel) begin to wear, 
and are no longer to be depended upon. 

It is mistaken policy and false 

False Policy. 

economy to purchase any other than 
a first-class gun, which, with ordinary care, will 
last longer than half-a-dozen cheap ones of in- 
ferior workmanship, and give infinitely more 
satisfaction, to say nothing of the great additional 
(security against accidents. 



128 CHOICE OF A GUN, 

The following precautdonary suggestions re- 
lative to the choice and purchase of a gun^ and 
the best mode of trying its powers, may be of 
service to the tyro. 

If price be no object, the novice 

On til© ^ , 1 . ^ 

Selection of Cannot do wrong by gomg to any 

Fire-arms. 

one of the half-dozen crack gun- 
makers, Purday, Westley Richards, Lancaster, 
Lang, or Boss, who will not compromise their 
world-wide reputations by letting a bad gun 
bearing their name leave their shops. By 
naming these firms as first*rate artists in gun- 
making, I by no means mean to infer that other 
manufacturers are not practically as good, or as 
much to be depended upon, as I know country 
makers who turn out as highly finished work as 
can be purchased in London. My object is to 
disprove a doctrine often promulgated by the 
ignorant, or interested parties attempting to im- 
pose upon the credulity of the public, by the 
unsound doctrine, " that cheaply made guns are 
intrinsically as good, shoot as well, and last as 



CHOICE OF A GUN. 129 

long as the highly-finislied arms that command a 
high price." It is an egregious mistake. Cheaply 
got-up and roughly finished guns will invariably 
disappoint the purchaser, even if no worse result 
arises; and well-made, highly-finished guns always 
prove the cheapest in the end. 

If money is an object, and the purchaser does 
not care to go to a long price, rather than allow 
himself to be deluded into buying an inferior 
article, let him go to one of the large London 
gun repositories such as Whistler's, in the Strand, 
where he can have the choice of several hundred 
second-hand guns and rifles by the best makers. 
Here anyone who is a judge of fire-arms can 
pick out as good and serviceable a gun as can 
be turned out, at about one-half its original cost. 

Although sportsmen rarely care to part with 
really good arms, some people are whimsical, and 
like to change their guns as they do their coats; 
the consequence of which fancy is, that highly- 
finished guns that have hardly seen service are 
often in the market. 



130 FIEST-CLASS GUNS CHEAPEST. 

^. ^ , A first-rate eun, made of the best 

GbS-peat^in Diatcrials, with all its component parts 
well fitted and finished^ will last an 
ordinarily careful sportsman his lifetime. As a 
proof of this fact I may mention that I bought a 
14-bore double gun, made by Westley Richards, 
from his agent, the Bishop of Bond Street, in 
1843, with which I have shot so much that two 
pair of barrels were completely worn out, yet 
the locks and stock are as good as when first 
turned out of hand: I have also a Man ton 
and a pair of Moore's that are known to be 
over thirty years old, yet are as serviceable as 
ever. 

Old and well-seasoned walnut (the best wood 
for gun-stocks), never shrinks or gives way, the 
locks and barrels fitting as closely and well 
after twenty years' wear as they did in the first 
instance. 

Brazier's locks (which have been 

Looks. 

celebrated since the days of Manton) 
are so admirably made, the springs so carefully 



HOW TO SELECT A GUN. 131 

adjusted, and the steel so thoroughly tempered, 
that the friction after many years* use is scarcely 
productive of any appreciable or perceptible 
wear; so that they will generally survive two 
pairs of barrels, for barrels even of the best 
quality will give way and wear thin after much 
continuous shooting. 

Let us suppose the purchaser, hav- 

Onthe . 1 J 1 !/• T 

Selection of mg selected half-a-dozen guns that 

a Gun. 

appear to suit him as regards price, 
finish, length and bend of stock, bore, weight, 
etc., proceeds to the shooting ground, to test 
their capabilities of shooting, a proceeding I 
should always recommend (and which no re- 
spectable gunmaker will object to), before the 
purchase is concluded. 

When ordering a new gun or rifle, I generally 
try the shooting whilst the gun is in the gray, 
before it is engraved and finished or the barrels 
browned, as when in this state the shooting can 
be altered with much less expense than when 
finished. 

k2 



132 . TESTING. 

TheTestinff Nothing can be easier than to test 
o una. ^j^g powers of a gun, which is the 

affair of a few minutes. Three things have to 
be considered, viz.: the correctness of shooting; 
the penetration; and the regular distribution of 
the charge. 

The correctness of shooting is easily ascer- 
tained by firing at a small mark on the bull's 
eye of a target, and observing whether the bar- 
rels are so put together as to deliver the body 
of the charge fairly upon the point aimed at. 
If barrels are carelessly bored they often throw 
to the right or the left, high or low. 

Guns also vary in throwing, the charge, as more 
or less elevation is given to the muzzle of the 
barrels. In my opinion the elevated rib ought 
to be so regulated as to make the point-blank 
range forty or forty-five yards, as the generality 
of sportsmen oftener shoot under than over their 
game. 

The best mode of testing the penetration of a 
gun is by firing at fifty sheets of brown paper. 



TESTING. 133 

folded closely together^ and fastened tightly on 
an iron target A. hard-hitting gun will drive 
No. 6 shot through forty sheets of ordinary 
brown cartridge paper at forty yards, thirty 
sheets at fifty yards, and twenty sheets at sixty 
yards. I have broken ordinary beer bottles at 
the latter distance with a favourite Joe Manton, 
but it was a gun among a thousand. 

Having tested the penetration, the next thing 
is to ascertain if the gun distributes the charge 
regularly y and this a few shots at a large white- 
washed iron target will soon determine. The 
shots ought to strike very close and regular in 
the middle, gradually spreading as they diverge 
from the centre. 

When no paper is at hand, some idea may be 
formed as to the penetrating powers of the gun 
by observing the state of the shot that has re- 
coiled from the target. It is flattened in pro- 
portion to the force with which the gun shoots. 

The elevation and regularity of the distri- 
bution of the charge is also shown by firing at 



134 POINTS OF A GOOD GUN. 

water on a still day, when the surface is smooth 
and unruffled. 

It is not sufficient that a gun is well 

The Bend and 

Len^rth of finished and hard hitting, it must suit 

Stock. 

the sportsman in the length and bend 
of the stock, so that it comes up at once well to 
the shoulder, and strikes the object aimed at with 
the first motion. This enables the hand and eye 
to act simultaneously, the great desideratum ne- 
cessary for good and quick shooting. No one 
can shoot brilliantly with a gun that does not 
come up well. A gun should be built according 
to the length of arm and neck of the sportsman ; 
for, in many cases men can no more use the same 
gun than they can wear each other's coats. 

A well-finished good gun gives con- 
Good Arms 

^ifceinfe^r^^®^^® *° ^^ sportsman, whereas an 

Ones Disffust. ./». -.^ •<-i«i -i* 

interior one destroys it, besides being 
productive of bad shooting. There is no reason 
why anyone should not shoot well who has tole- 
rable eyesight, and begins early in life, but there 
are certain requisites a gun must have, or the best 



CHOICE OF A GUN. 135 

performer will make but a sorry bag. Let the 
sportsman exercise his best judgment in choosing 
his gun, and remember that the purchase of an 
inferior article is not only false economy, but 
greiit imprudence, if he sets any value on his 
personal safety. 



CHAPTER VI. 



PRACTICAL HINTS ON THE USE 

OF THE RIFLE. 



The Theoiy of Bifle FMotioe— The Bifle, the Bullet, the Line of 
Fire, the Trajeotory, Point Blank Bange— The Line of Sight 
—Sights— Aiming BriU— Position Drill— Two Steady Posi- 
tions for Long Bange Ptaotioe — ^Blank Cartridge Firing — 
Judging Distance Drill— Target Praotioe — Hinta npon Load- 
ing : Allowances to be made for the Wind, the State of the 
Atmosphere, and the Position of the Snn— Bules to be 
observed when Firing at MoTing Objects. 



The following hints on rifle-shooting may prove 
useful to those who have not had the benefit of 
an efficient instructor. 

Riflemen are not made in a day^ but it is an 
established fact that anyone gifted with perfect 
vision can^ with instruction and practice, become 



RIFLING, 137 

an efficient marksman ; therefore^ none should be 
discouraged or despair^ as perseverance must lead 
to ultimate sticcess. 

Commencing with the theory of rifle practice, 
which must be fuUy understood before the rifle- 
man can hope to be an expert shot at all ranges, 
I shall afterwards enter upon the practical part 
of his initiation. 

The first point for consideration is 

TheBifling. 

the barrel of the rifle, which (in the 
Enfield pattern), it may be observed, has three 
spiral grooves cut in the interior, or bore, at an 
equal distance firom each other, of even depth, 
and making half a turn in the length of the 
barrel, which is 8 feet 8 inches. These grooves, 
otherwise termed the rifling ^ give the bullet (an 
elongated cylindro-conical projectile) a spiral 
motion, sometimes called the spin or tvnsty as 
it flies through the air point foremost, rotatory 
on its own axis. This very much increases the 
accuracy of the flight of the bullet, as it serves 



1 38 WINDAGE. 

to keep it in its true course^ and prevents any 
inclination it may have to deviate from it, owing 
to irregularity in shape or weight. 

The diameter of the bore of an 

Windage. 

Enfield rifle is "577, but that of the 
bullet is rather less, in order to facilitate the 
loading. This difference in size — t.c., the differ- 
ence between the circumference of the bullet and 
the bore — leaves a space between the bullet and 
the bore, termed the windage^ which was the 
principal cause of the inefficiency of the old 
'^ Brown Bess," for two reasons — the first, because 
a great part of the explosive force, or gas gene- 
rated by the ignition of the powder, was lost, as 
it escaped by the space between the bullet and 
the side of the bore ; and, secondly, because this 
irregular escape caused the ball to rebound from 
side to side in the barrel, instead of passing 
evenly through the bore, and the consequence of 
this was that it took an erratic impetus through- 
out its flight 



\ 



ENFIELD CARTRIDGE. 



139 



TheBnUet. 



The Enfield bullet is, 
however, so constructed as 
to do away with these objections. 
Although the circumference is much 
less than that of the bore, so as to 
enter the barrel easily in loading, all 
windage is effectually prevented, as in 
the base of the projectile is a hollow, 
into which is fitted a small wooden 
cup, or plug (vide Plate), which, 
by the force of the explosion of the 
charge, acts like a wedge,* and ex- 
pands and enlarges the lower part 
of the bullet, making it fit the barrel 

Section of tiffhtly, and take the rifling, so that 
THE Enfield & /» j j^ 

Cartbidgb. Jj^ .^ passage through the barrel it is 
constrained to turn with the grooves, and thus 
receives the spinning movement on its longer 
axis, which not only insures accuracy of fiight. 



* This theory, although adopted by the School of Mnsketry 
at Hythe, is oontradioted by seyeial competent authorities ; and 
I believe there is reason to doubt its accuracy. 



1 40 BARREL — AXIS. 

but also always keeps its point forward. By the 
bullet being thus expanded^ and so much en- 
larged as to fit the barrel and grooves tightly, 
none of the explosive power of the gas engen- 
dered by the ignition of the charge is allowed to 
escape, but the whole propelling force acts 
upon the projectile. There is also a much 
better chance of the whole of the powder being 
burnt. 

The barrel is a tube of iron, of 

The Barrel 

which the sides of the interior, or 
bore^ are parallel, but those of the exterior con- 
verge, it being necessary that the metal of the 
breech-end should be very much thicker than at 
the muzzle, towards which it gradually tapers, 
as it has to stand the force of the explosion of 
the charge. In consequence of this contraction, 
every barrel has in itself a certain degree of 
elevation — ^but of this more anon. 

The axis of the barrel is an imagi- 

TheAzis. 

nary line drawn through the centre of 
the bore, and parallel to the interior sides. 



LINE OF FIRE. 141 

The line of ^® '*^^ of Jire is the continuation 
of the axis in a straight line^ and 
marks the direction the bullet would take on 
leaving the barrel^ propelled hy the explosion of 
the charge^ were it not that it is also acted upon 
by the power of gravity ^ which attracts it towards 
the earthy and the resistance the air offers to its 
passage^ which is always in direct opposition to 
its flight. 

TheTradeo- ^^® trqjectory is the actual course 
• ^' of the bullet, which dalways escribes 

a curve — a fact easily accounted for, as, from the 
moment it leaves the muzzle, the force of the 
gunpowder drives it forward, and gravity draws 
it downward, so that by yielding to both forces — 
i.e.t by moving onwards and downwards at the 
same time — it must travel in a curve diverging 
more and more below the line of fire, until at 
last, the propelling power being expended, it 
falls to the earth. Hence it follows, that if the 
axis of a barrel is directed upon the bull's-eye of 
a target, at 100 yards distance, the bullet will 



142 POINT-BLANK KANGE. 

strike about 1 foot 5 inches below; the power 
of gravity having made it deviate from the 
line of &e, and drawn it towards the earth, 1 foot 
and 5 inches, in a flight of 100 yards. Therefore, 
if the barrel were as thick at the muzzle as it is at 
the breech, it would be necessary to aim 1 foot 
5 inches above the mark in order to hit it; but 
this is not the case, for, as I have before observed, 
every barrel has in itself a certain degree of 
elevation, on account of the increased thick- 

I 

ness of metal at the breech end. The Enfield 

rifle-barrel has elevation in itself for about 75 

yards. 

p int-blank ^^® point-blank range is the extreme 

^' point at which the trajectory intersects 

the line of fire, or the greatest distance to which 
a rifle will throw a ball in a direct course parallel 
to the line of sight. 

If an Enfleld rifle be held with the axis of the 
barrel parallel to the ground at the height of 
4 feet 6 inches above it, the first graze when the 
bullet strikes will be about 200 paces distant. 



LINE OF SIGHT. 143 

the ball having dropped 4^/4 feet in that distance. 
The point-blank range of an Enfield is about 
80 paces ; but they vary, as more or less elevation 
is given to the muzzle of the rifle, or according 
to the strength of the propelling power. 

The line of sight, or aim, is an 

, Lme of Sight. ^ ^ 

imaginary straight line taken from the 
pupil of the eye through the centre of the back- 
sight, along the top of the fore-sight, to the 
object intended to be hit. The back-sight is so 
arranged as to give the proper elevation for 
difierent distances. The further the object is to 
be aimed at, the greater the elevation required ; 
and this is given by raising the sliding bar of 
the back-sight, which is marked with lines up to 
900 yards. 

Accuracy of shooting is greatly de- 
Sights. 

pendent upon the sights being care- 
fully adjusted, and fitted exactly parallel to the 
axis of the barrel. If the back-sight is too much 
inclined to the right, or the front-sight too much 
to the left, the rifle will shoot to the right of the 



144 DRILL. 

mark aimed at ; in the same manner^ if the back- 
sight is placed too much to the left^ or the fore- 
sight too much to the rights the gun will carry to 
the left ; and the greater the distance the greater 
in proportion will be the deviation. Every rifle, 
therefore, ought to be carefully sighted and shot 
before it is placed in a novice's hands, as non- 
success in practice on account of an ill-sighted 
weapon would not be his fault, and might serve 
to discourage him. 

TheKontine . The mechanical routine necessary 
to be gone through before the tj^o 
can become an efficient marksman, consists of 
aiming drill, position drill, judging distance drill, 
and practice in firing. 

Aiming Drill is necessary to 

Aiming Drill* ... ... . , 

familiarise the uninitiated with the 
use of the sights, teaching him how to align his 
rifle, or aim correctly at a mark. The practice 
of this drill exercises the eye, strengthening and 
developing the sight in the same manner that 
continued exertion increases the power of the 



DRILL. 145 

limbs. The following standard rules should be 
carefully observed : 

I. — The rifle should always be held with the 
sights perfectly upright, as it is only in this posi- 
tion that the line of sight, the line of fire ^ and 
trajectory, are in the same vertical plane. If the 
butt of the rifle is not held vertically, but is 
*^ canted" either to the right or the left, so that 
the perpendicular of the hack-sight with the axis 
of the barrel is not preserved, the ball will strike 
to the right if the sight inclines to the left, and 
vice versd ; and, in firing at long ranges, a very 
slight deviation in this respect will cause a wide 
deflection. 

II. — The aim or line of sight should be 
taken along the centre of the notch of the back- 
sight and the top of the fore-sight, which should 
cover the centre of the object aimed at. 

III. — The eye shoidd be fixed steadfastly on 
the mark aimed at, and not on the barrel or forc" 
sight, which latter wiU be easily brought into the 
alignment, if the eye is fixed as directed. 

L 



146 BBILL. 

IV. — In aiming, the left eye should be closed. 
Aiming drill is generally taught with a ^^ traver- 
sing rest," or, if that is not at hand, a tripod 
with a sand-bag on the top, standing about 
4 feet 8 inches from the ground (or the average 
height of a man's shoulder) will answer every 
purpose ; and the novice is required to align his 
rifle with the proper elevation upon objects at 
distances varying from 50 to 900 yards. Each 
time he has aligned his rifle he steps aside, 
in order that the instructor may take his 
place and see if the aim be correct. This prac- 
tice should be continued until the novice has no 
difficidty in aligning his rifle on the bull's eye at 
all distances. Up to 300 yards, the bull's eye is 
8 inches in diameter, and above that distance 
2 feet. 

Position Drill is absolutely ne- 

Position Drill. 

cessary to insure good practice at 
long ranges. It habituates the novice to cor- 
rect positions, and enables him to fire steadily in 
all situations. It gives him a perfect command 



DRILL. 147 

over his weapon, and enables the eye and hand 
to act together, so that the left hand raises the 
rifle at once to bear upon the object, for the eye 
to take aim ; and at the same moment the fore- 
finger of the right hand acts upon the trigger. 

To establish the natural connection between 
the eye and the hand, constant practice is re- 
quired ; and the novice should be accustomed to 
handle his rifle both with and mthout the bayonet, 
being put through all the motions of firing stand- 
ing and kneeling, with the same precision as if 
actually practising with ball-cartridge. 

At the School of Musketry at Hythe, recruits 
are taught to fire standing at all distances up to 
300 yards, and kneeling at every longer range. 

There are two positions for taking a steady aim 
without artificial appliance : 
^g. J. The first is by kneeling on the right 

^^ ^^ knee and sitting on the right heel, the 
rifle being firmly grasped and steadied by the 
left hand, the left elbow resting on the left knee 
60 as to form a support. 

l2 



148 DRILL. 

^.,^. The second is by sitting on the' 

Sitting •' ^ 

Position, ground with both feet fairly planted 
fiat^ and the knees raised so as almost to form a 
right-angle. The left elbow rests on the left 
knee, which is pointed in the direction of the 
object aimed at, and the right elbow rests on the 
right knee, which is extended to the right. 

The latter, in my opinion, is the firmest posi- 
tion the marksman can adopt in shooting at long 
ranges, and after a little practice it becomes a 
very comfortable one. 

In practising at long ranges, or 
when exposed to heavy fire, the 
marksman can make very good shooting by lying 
down his full length upon his belly, and firing 
with his head slightly raised, and with his two 
elbows resting steadily on the ground. 
« Should the novice meet with any 

^napping ^ 

*^^' diiEculty in aiming correctly, the in- 

spector should cause him to snap caps at a lighted 
candle placed about a yard distant, when, if the 
aim is properly directed, the candle will be 



DRILL, 149 

extinguished. The novice should be attentively 
watched during this practice, until all tendency 
to wink or flinch is overcome, and his countenance 
shows that he has become indifferent to the report. 
This practice is most excellent for forming 
'* Marksmeriy^ for, besides saving ammunition, it 
may be continually resorted to, even in a room, 
the bulls'-eye being a small black wafer on the 
wall at one end, and the stand taken at the other. 
By snapping caps only, the young beginner is 
enabled to see whether the muzzle of the barrel 
wavers when he presses the trigger, which he 
cannot properly ascertain when firing ball, on 
account of the smoke of the discharge. The 
constant handling of the rifle in a proper manner, 
by aiming at various objects at different distances, 
enables the ^^ finger to work in unison with the 
eye," and gives great steadiness of position 
before, during, and after pressing the trigger, 
which is all that is required in making good ball- 
practice at a target of which the distance is 
known. 



150 BLANK CARTRIDGE. 

_, ^ Before the novice is allowed to fire 

Blank 

Cartridge. ^^j^ |^gjj^ j^^ should practise a certain 
routine of blank-cartridge firing, in order to 
further the same object for which he was exer- 
cised in snapping caps, as well as to accustom him 
to the '* recoil *' or " kick," which is a backward 
motion caused by the force of the explosion of 
the powder acting against the breech of the barrel 
at the same time as against the bullet. 

The force of the recoil depends 
upon the charge of powder, the 
weight of the bullet, the weight of the rifle, the 
windage, the rifling of the barrel, the boring of 
the barrel (whether purely cylindrical or other- 
wise), the amount of friction, and the foulness, 
which much increases the resistance offered by 
the air to the bullet passing up the barrel. The 
instructor should impress upon the novice the 
necessity of pressing the heel of the butt well 
and firmly into the hollow of the shoulder, as the 
more confidently a man " stands up" to his rifle, 
the less likelihood there is of random shooting. 



JUDGING DISTANCE. 151 

The position of the body, arms, and hands^ 
and the manner of pressing the trigger, as also 
the position of the head when taking aim, are to 
be didy watched both in this and the former 
exercise, in order to discover and correct those 
errors which are fatal to good shooting, and 
which cannot be so successfully corrected when 
firing ball. 
T , . TV. One of the greatest essentials in a 

Jndgmg Di8- ° 

^' well-trained marksman is the capability 

to estimate distances correctly, as good shooting 
cannot be made unless the distance is previously 
ascertained and the proper elevation given to the 
back-sight. At long ranges it requires great 
practice to judge distance accurately ; but there 
is always a ready method of ascertaining it prac-* 
tically, by firing, and watching whether the 
bullet strikes the ground over or under the 
object aimed at. If over, he will lower the 
sliding bar of the back-sight ; if under, he will 
raise it. Practice over all kinds of ground is 
the best means of teaching a novice how to 



152 RULE. 

judge distance correctly by the eye, and anyone 
possessing good vision may train himself most 
effectually in this art for all practical purposes. 
This, however, can only be accomplished by con- 
tinual practice and careful observation. When 
engaged in ball-practice at a target placed at 
known distances, the tyro should carefully notice 
the apparent height of the markers at each range, 
remembering that in fine clear weather objects 
standing in a strong light will appear much nearer 
than they really are, and vice versa in cloudy and 
damp weather. 

At 60 yards, the features of a man 
Bule. 

may be clearly identified, and his 

complexion,, arms, accoutrements, and dress dis- 
tinctly perceived, the buttons and the badge on 
his forage-cap being distinguishable. At 100 
yards, the features become indistinct, the buttons 
appear in a line, and the badge can be only 
faintly discerned. At 200 yards, the face ap- 
pears like a whitish ball under the line of the 
cap, and the buttons and badge become invisible. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 153 

These distances should constitute the first prac- 
tice ; the second would embrace distances from 
200 to 400 yards ; and the third, from 400 to 
1000 yards or more. At 600 yards no features 
are visible, and the head looks like a ball upon 
the shoulders, the neck being hardly visible. 

The instructor will desire the novice to mark 
the size of the men at each distance, and point out 
any difierence he may discern in their appear- 
ance. He will also desire him to take notice of 
the position of the sun, the character of the 
background, and state of the atmosphere at the 
time, in order that he may be accustomed to 
their altered appearance under different circum- 
stances. 

After some days' exercise in Judging Distance 
Drill, the proficiency of the novice may be tested 
by his being practised to judge the distance of 
objects placed at unknown ranges. 
„ . The novice having been thoroughly 

^^' instructed in ^^ aiming y^ ^^positiouy^ 
and ^^ judging distance^* drill, can commence 



154 TAKING AIM. 

^^ target practice,^* when his efficiency will be 
tested. 

The following hints may prove useful to the 
novice : 

At the moment of pressing the trigger, the act 
of respiration should be suspended, to ensure 
greater steadiness of aim. 

When once the aim is clearly taken, all delay 
in pressing the trigger is prejudicial to good 
shooting ; as, if the rifle is held at the " present '* 
too long, a ^* toavering '* of the muzzle takes place, 
and an uncertain shot is the consequence. 

In taking: aim at a target, fix the eve 

TskingAim. ^ . 

steadfastly on the bull's eye, grasping 
he x\Ae firmly with the left hand " well forward ** 
(according to its balance), the butt being pressed 
home into the hollow of the shoulder ; the right 
hand, with the exception of the forefinger, lightly 
clasping the sm all of the stock behind the trigger- 
guard, so as to steady and preserve the butt in a 
vertical position ; then, holding the breath, place 
the fore finger well round the trigger, feeling it 



HAND AND EYE. 155 

lightly, and raise the muzzle gradually and 
steadily until the fore-sight is seen through the 
centre of the notch of the back-sight covering the 
centre of the bull*s-eye, when the motion should 
be arrested, and the trigger simultaneously pressed 
without the slightest jerk, the eye being rigidly 
fixed on the object aimed at, and the whole of the 
body immobile. 

The great " knack ** in rifle-practice 

On the Hand 

and Eye work- is to accustom the hand and eye to 

ing together. 

work together 9 so that the trigger be 
pressed simultaneously with the object being 
*' covered,'* as it is almost an in^possibility to 
retain an aim. 

Care should be taken that the aim is not lost in 
pressing the trigger, which, if the lock is well 
made, should not '* pull too strongly." 

After the trigger is pressed — keeping the rifle 
to the shoulder — a perfect immobility of body 
should be retained, and the eye kept steadfastly 
upon the object aimed at. and the deflection 
noted. 



156 POSITION OF THE HEAD. 

In aligning a rifle at a mark, the position of the 
head with reference to the butt will vary according 
to the range and the elevation required. At short 
distances, the shoulder is a little raised and the 
head bent forward (not sideways), the cheek 
resting against the small part of the butt, so that 
the object aimed at is seen through the notch in 
the back-sight. At longer ranges, the head must 
be raised, and the shoulder lowered ; and at the 
furthest distances, if the stock of the rifle is too 
much bent, the heel of the butt may rest against 
the breast or side instead of the shoulder. As 
heavy firing in this position is inconvenient, it is 
perhaps better in this case to allow for the neces- 
sary elevation hjjlring highy or aiming above the 
object intended to be hit, as the recoil is often felt 
severely when the heel of the butt only rests 
against the shoulder. 

^ J Careless loading is conducive to ir- 

* ^^* regular firing. The exact charge of 
powder that the rifle will burn should be cor- 
rectly ascertained and strictly adhered to, for a 



CARELESS LOADING. 157 

little more or a little less will cause a great vertical 
deviation in the flight of the bullet. Care should 
be taken to keep the barrel upright when pouring 
in the charge, so that the grains of powder may 
not adhere to the sides of the barrel, which would 
foul and impede the passage of the bullet. 

The bullet should not fit too loosely nor yet be 
so large as to require hammering, in order to force 
it down, as in the former case it is liable "to 
strip " (or pass out of the barrel without taking 
the rifling, and gaining the spiral motion), and in 
the latter it will have ragged edges, which will 
cause it to diverge from its true direction in its 
flight through the air. 

In pressing down the bullet, although great 
care should be taken to drive it properly homey 
much force should not be employed, as, by ram* 
ming smd jamming with the ramrod, the shape of 
the bullet is altered and spoiled, which much 
afiects its true flight, and the powder is *^ mealed" 
and "caked," by which the strength of the 
charge in much diminished, as a certain amount 



168 ALLOWANCE FOR WlMu. 

of air is necessary to ensure thorough com- 
bustion. 

The base of the bullet should rest evenly upon 
the powder, and its axis be in line with that of 
the barrel. 

For fine shooting, care should be taken that 
there is no hidden defect in the bullet, for if any 
part be hollow or imperfect, the centre of gravity 
will not be in the line of the axis, and conse- 
quently there will be a deviation in its flight. 

I shall now notice the causes of irregular firiog 
over which the rifleman can have do control, but 
which may, to a certain extent, be rendered less 
injurious to ^* the score '* if the following obser- 
vations are carefully attended to : 

All oe for ^^^^» ^^^ wind aflects the flight of 
^ the bullet to a considerable extent in 

flring at long distances, diverting it from its true 
course, and accelerating or retarding its progress 
according as it blows toiih or against it. When 
the wind blows from a quarter exactly opposite 
to the direction of the bullet, it experiences a 



^ 



ALLOWANCE FOR WIND. 159 

greater resistance in its flight, and accordingly 
more elevation should be given. Should the wind 
blow exactly from the shooter to the target the 
resistance will be less than ordinary, and conse- 
quently less elevation than ordinary is required. 
Allowances should be made according to the 
strength of the current of air. If the wind 
blows from the right, aim to the right, as the 
deflection will be to the left, and vice vers if 
from the left. 

If the course of the wind forms an angle to 
the direction of the bullet, aim must be taken, 
and allowances made accordingly. Thus, if the 
wind blows from the right and contrary, the 
deviation will be to the left and low: therefore, 
in order to strike the bull's-eye, aim should be 
taken to the right and high; and to the left and 
high if the current of air is contrary, and from 
the left. 

If the wind blows from the right and rear, 
on aiming direct at the bull's-eye, the deflection 
of the bullet will be to the left and high : there- 



160, STATE OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 

fore^ in sucli a case^ aim should be taken to the 
right and low ; or to the left and loWy if the cur- 
rent of air comes from the left and rear. 

Correct judgment in making the proper allow- 
ances for the effect of various winds upon the 
flight of the projectile can only be gained by 
practice in all kinds of weather, but the above 
hints may assist the novice. 

State of the ^^^ State of the atmosphere consi- 
osp ere. ^Q^^\y affects the range of the bullet. 

In damp weather, when the atmosphere is dense, 
its resistance to the flight of the bullet is 
increased^ and consequently greater elevation 
should be given. In fine clear weather, on the 
contrary, the resistance is less, and the bullet 
rises, therefore less elevation is required. Hu- 
midity in the atmosphere also affects the range 
of the bullet in a different manner, as it has a 
certain influence on ignition of gunpowder, 
which in damp weather is not so rapid as in fine ; 
therefore, on such days larger charges should be 
used than on hot summer days. 






POSITION OF THE SUN. 161 

Positi f "^^ position of the sun is some. 
® ^^' times liable to influence the correct 
aim^ as if it shines from the right it lightens up 
the right side of the front-sight, and the left side 
of the notch of the back-sight, throwing the left 
of the front-sight and the right of the back-sight 
into the shade ; therefore, if the firer is not care- 
ful in aiming properly, the " line of sight '* is 
liable to pass from the left of the centre of the 
notch of the back-sight and the right of the front- 
sight, the effect of which would be that the bullet 
would strike to the left, and vice versa if the sun 
shines from the left. Sun-shades are sometimes 
used to obviate this difficulty. 
Allowance ^* must be obvious to all, that the 

ObjectT^ flight of the bullet occupies a certain 
time, and in firing at moving objects a certain 
allowance should be made accordingly, and great 
judgment is required in this point when firing 
at long ranges. For instance, in deer-stalking, 
if a deer is running transversely eijther to the 
right or left, a sportsman aiming directly at the 

M 



162 ALLOWANCE FOR MOVING OBJECTS. 

slioxilder would most likely either strike the 
hind*quarter or miss by shooting behind^ as^ in 
the time between the discharge of his rifle and 
the impact or striking of the bullet, the quarry 
would have moved forward a certain distance. 

The following hints on this point may aid the 
notxce: 

In firing at anything moving, it is advisable to 
cover the object and allow the muzzle to follow it 
for some distance before pulling the trigger, in 
order to ascertain the velocity of the motion, and 
the aQowanoe required to be made. 

If the object is approaching the person firing, 
the muzzle of the barrel should be gradually 
lowered, the finger feeling the trigger all the 
time, and aim should be taken law. 

If the object be retiring, the muzzle of the rifle 
should be raised (more or less according to the 
distance and the velocity of motion of the object), 
and aim taken high. 

If the object is moving across, eitiier to the 



i 



ALLOWANCE FOR MOVING OBJECTS. 163 

right or left, aim should be taken toell forward^ 
after having followed the motion with the object 
well covered for some time. 

Should the object be ascending a \nSLy fire high; 
ii descending^ fire low; if diagcmaUy^ in front. 



U% 



CHAPTER VII. 



TENTS AND ENCAMPMENTS. 



The Danger of being exposed to the Night Air without Shelter^ 
The Regulation Bell Tenir— Officers' Bell Tent— The Bonnd 
Wall Tent— The Marquee or Mess Tent— The Tent of the 
French Army — Shooting Tent — Edgington's Improved Mili- 
tary Tent— " The Old Shekarry's Wigwam"— Tent Pegs- 
How to pitch a Tent — ^Tent Furniture— The Encampment — . 
The Camp Ghiard. 



I SHALL now enter upon the subject of tents, for 
much of a traveller's comfort depends upon his 
having a commodious shelter impervious to wind 
or weather, sufficiently portable to be always car- 
ried with him, which, unfortunately for our poor 
soldiers. Government tents are not. Many a 
thousand brave fellows have been laid under the 



TENTS AND ENCAMPMENTS. 



Tenti and Encampments. 

8od, waated away from disease contracted on ser- 
vice, because, when weary at the end of a long 
marcli, tlieir tent^ not having come up, they have 
thrown themselves upon the damp ground, or 
slept exposed to the deadly night-dews. After 
the intense heat of the day, a night passed in this 
manner will undermine the stiongest constitudoD, 



166 BBQULATION BELL TENT. 

and lay in the seeds of rheumatiBm, fever, and 
dysentery. 

The following sketches show the different kinds 
of tents in general use, all of which are to be 
obtained at B. Edgington's establishment, in Duke 
Street, near London Bridge, which firm for many 
years has home the palm for all kinds of camp 
equipment 



Beenlatioii Ball Tent, 

The above Plate shows the Eegulation Bell 



officers' bbll tent. Ibi 

Tent, which has a circumference of 40 feet, and 
is supposed to hold a dozen men. 



OfflnBTB' Bell Tent. 



The above Plate shows an Officers' Tent, which 
is a modification of the soldiers', having low 
side walls, and standing qq the tame area. 



BOUND WALL TENT. 



Bound "Wall Tant. 

The above Plate shows a Bound Wall Tent, 
mncli used in India and other hot climates, being 
more conTenient, but at the same time consider- 
ably heavier, than the regulation tents. It is also 
much more liable to be blown down. 

The Plate on page 169 shows the Marquee of an 
officer commanding a regiment, or an Indian Mess 
Tent. It makes a great show in a camp, and is 
Tcry spacious and comfortable dining in, but 
sometimes comes to grief in a storm. 



INDIAN MESS TENT. 



SHOOTING TENT. 171 

The Plate on page 170 shows the tent much used 
by the French army during the campaign in the 
Crimea. In fine weather it is fai more commo- 
dious than the English B^gulation Bell Tent, but 
it is not 80 comfoi-table in wet weather, and is 
considerably heavier, weighing 160 lbs. It makes 
a very nice tent for a pic-nic, or for a lawn. 



172 MILITARY TENTS. 

The Plate on page 171 shows a very convenient 
little tent for shooting on the moors^ but it will 
not stand heavy weather. It holds two persons 
very comfortably. 

The two Plates, pages 173 and 174, show 
B. Edgington's Military Tent, which is superior 

in every respect to that now in use 
Improved Mill- in the British army. It is 14 feet 

tary Tent. 

6 inches square, with porches at 
each end projecting 6 feet, and sustained by light 
6- feet poles, protecting the entrance from rain. 
The figure is a pyramid, and the angles are 
strengthened from the head of the teut by an inch 
rope, to which the canvas is bolted, and which, 
being secured by strong iron pegs to the ground, 
constitutes the principal support of the tent. 
*^The ventilation" is at the top, the aperture 
being secured against the entrance of rain. The 
centre pole is divided into three parts — the small 
poles into two, and the whole (including poles, 
pegs, and every requisite) is packed in two 



IMPEOVED MILITAEY TENT. 



THE OLD SHfiKARRY's WIGWAM, 176 

valises ; weight of tent, 93 lbs. and 79 lbs. poles^ 
etc. Area of tent with porches, 394 square feet. 
This tent is also made 9 and II feet square. 

For cold weather a stove and chimney can be 
substituted for a centre-pole, and by means of a 
rack, the top of the tent can be raised or lowered, 
according to the action of the weather on the 
canvas, the pipe being free from the stove. The 
Plate on page 174 shows the arrangement of the 
stove. 

I herewith give a sketch of a very 

"The Old 

Shekarry's comfortable tent of my own invention. 

Wigwam." ^ * 

which I have found very serviceable 
when a small amount of baggage only can be 
taken. It is water-tight, weather-proof, well 
ventilated, and very portable. 

The dimensions are : 

Length of top ridge, a to ft, 10 feet. 

Slope, 7 feet. 

Height of poles, 5 feet, to lengthen to 7 feet. 



EXTEEIOR OP WIGWAM. 



INTERIOR OF WIGWAM. 



THE WIGWAM. 



"The "WigwBja." 



This tent or wigwam, as I term it, is very com- 
fortable for two persons, with their baggage, and, 
if required, four can find ample room in it tq 
sleep. Although a man cannot stand upright in 
my tent (the height being only 5 feet in the cen- 
tre), without digging out the inside area — as in my 
expeditions I rarely travel with table, chair, or 
even bedstead — I suffer very little inconvenience 
from the low pitch; and, on the other hand, I go 
to sleep with the comfortable assurance in my 
mind that, although the winds may blow and the 
rains descend, my home is impervious to both. 
Mr. Benjamin Edgington, of Duke Street, South- 
warlci has built me a famous wigwam for Abyssinia, 
which has all the edges strongly roped, so that it 
will stand the brunt of any storm. 



THE WIGWAM. 179 

When only one tent is taken^ and the journey 
is likely to be a long one, perhaps it would be 
advisable to have a somewhat larger wigwam. 
Mr. Edgington is building some 8 feet in height, 
and 8 feet broad, in which there is plenty of 
room for a stove, the chimney forming a substi- 
tute for the centre-pole. 

The Plate on page 177 shows the interior of 
the larger *' wigwam," with the interior dug 
out, which, including the porches, has an area 
of about 18 feet by 8, and is a very comfortable 
habitation for four officers in any weather. 

** The wigwam," having two entrances opposite 
each other (which are protected from the weather 
by the porches), the ventilation can be regulated 
at will ; a thorough current of air always passing 
through the tent, which is a great desideratum in 
a hot climate. 

With every *' wigwam," Mr. Edgington sends 
out an extra piece, with an iron socket attached, 
to lengthen the centre-pole, when the inside area 
is dug out, also storm ropes in case of hurricanes, 

US 



180 



TENT PBOS. 



and a canvas saddle-bag^ which contains the whole 
tent. 

The wigwam, having no outlying ropes, 
stands on a smaller area of ground than most 
other descriptions of tent, and can therefore be 
pitched close to another, with only a centre drain 
between them. This is a great advantage when 
a, large force is encamped, and the ground is 
circumscribed. 

I prefer gal- 
vanised iron 




Tent Pegs. 



tent-pegs to wooden 

ones. They should 

have a notch to hold 

11 I I \f the rope, and rings 

/I ^ |3 / \ passing through the 

gether, and prevent 

their being lost when on the march. 

How to Pitch Great art is shown in pitching a 

tent properly, so as to stand firmly 

with the canvas tightly stretched. Care must 



HOW TO PITCH A TENT, 181 

be taken to dig a trench outside, to carry away 
the rain-water (vide Plate, page 177, J) ; and to 
raise a bank of earth in the inside (vide Plate, 
page 177, a), to prevent wind, dust, or draught 
from coming in under the canvas sides. When 
it is intended to remain for any length of time 
in a place, the interior area of the tent may be 
excavated, leaving a shelf of about 18 inches in 
width all round;, and the centre pole being 
lengthened or the stove set up, it then becomes 
a most commodious habitation. 

In case of bad weather, storm-ropes should be 
fastened to the spokes of the tent-poles and 
pegged securely, taking care that the tent- 
pegs are driven in a sloping direction, in- 
clining inwards, so that they are less easily 
drawn out. 

Should the soil be sandy, the ropes ought to 
be hushedy which is done by burying branches 
deeply, and only leaving a hook above the sur- 
face, to which the rope is attached (vide Plate, 
page 180;. Two tent-pegs may be buried in a 



182 CAMP STOVB. 

similar manner but the former arrangement holds 
best in a light soil. 

Edginjrtoii'B '^^^ arrangement (Plate, page 183), 
and^SooWng "^hich is particularly well adapted for 
tents, is remarkable alike for its utility 
and compactness. The whole packs into an oval 
case (12), 22 inches high, 16 inches long, and 
13 inches wide. Weight, 80 lbs. 

The following articles are contained : Camp 
stove (1) ; two-gallon boiling pot (2), the cover of 
which forms a frying pan (3); one-gaUon tea 
kettle with swing handle and screw spout (4) ; 
two one-quart hooked coffee boilers (5) ; four 
oval bottles for essence of coffee, etc. (6) ; one 
meat dish (7) ; one soup ditto (8) ; one toasting 
oven (9) ; oval box and pepper box (10) ; one 
pint porringer (11). 

Bireotions Place the stove in the oval pan, 
which forms the cover of the iron box ; 
fix the circular rim on the top of the stove, on 
which place thq boiler, frying pan, or tea kettle, 
as required. 



COOKING APPARATUa 



Camp StoTa and Caoionfc AppamtUB. 



184 COOKING APPARATUS. 

The hooked pots will hang on the sides ot 
front of the stove. When not required for cook- 
ing, put on the round cast top ; the large oval 
box will hold the fuel. 

Directions ^^^ articles to be put into the stove 

mgr- jj^ ^j^^ following order: 1st — Deep 

dish and toasting oven. 2nd — Meat dish. 3rd—* 
Frying pan. 4th — Boiling pot, in which place 
the two hooked pots, oval boxes, and pepper box* 
(The oval bottles will go into the hooked pots.) 
6th — The tea kettle, in which place the porringer. 
6th — The stove, funnel pipes, and elbows to be 
placed within the case. The oval pan forms the 
cover. 

On the opposite page is an engraving of a very 
compact and useful little dinner apparatus ; knife, 
fork, and spoon, each closing up like a pocket- 
knife, and fitting, with salt, pepper, and mustard- 
pots, into a leather case, which, when rolled up, 
is contained in the drinking-cup. The whole 
fits into a compact leather case, which can be 
strapped to the saddle. 



DINNER APPARATUS. 



Dinner Apparatui. 

.jp^j A portable bedstead, as made by 

FurmtuiB. g_ Edgington, of 2, Duke Street, Lon- 
doQ Bridge (vide Flate> page 186^. is not a bad 



TENT FUENITOEB. 



investment, but as I always carry a pair of 
bullock trunks when I intend to indulge in 
luxuries, I prefer to fix a canvas stretcher with 
an iron frame-work between them, which forms 
a very comfortable bed (ride Plate below). 

By this latter arrangement my goods and gear 
in the boxes are tolerably safe from pilferers, and 
no one can meddle with them whilst I sleep 
without first trying conclusions with their 
owner. 



Bengough'B Trunh-Bed. 



INFLATABLE BATH. 



Coidlng's InAatablB Bath. 

A portable bath is a great luxury, and thoBe 

of india-rubber, inflated with air, made by 

Cording, 231, Strand, ate by far the beet I 

have seen- 

When the inside area of the tent 
The Eatnmook. . ^ • • 

IS excavated, it is an easy matter to 

Bling a hammock to ropes iixed to tent-pegs or 

posts firmly driven into the ground, and in my 

opinion this makes the most comfortable bed. 

I always carry one of Cording's waterproof 

hammocks with me, which, even if I cannot 

sling it, serves me as a ground-sheet. 

Slung from a bamboo or pole, it makes a capital 

stretcher for a sick or wounded man; on the West 

Coast of Eq^uatorial Africa, where hotses will not 



188 ENCAMPMENTS. 

live, it is the only mode of conveyance for Euro- 
peans, in getting about from place to place. 

In Madeira, South America, and throughout 
India, it is also generally used. 
Encampments. An old soldier, and an experi- 
Camp Eules. enced traveller, will always choose 
the encamping ground himself; as not only his 
comfort, but very often his safety, vrill depend 
upon his selection. 

If he is in a hostile country, ^^ where might is 
righty^ and he considers his party strong enough 
to hold their own, in case of an attack from pre- 
datory tribes, he will pitch his camp upon an 
eminence, sufficiently near to water to command 
its easy approach, and far enough from any cover 
that might conceal an enemy. 

He will take care that his tents are placed so 
that the excavations form rifle-pits, arranged to 
defend each other by cross-fires in case of a sud- 
den rush of the enemy from any quarter. This 
is a most necessary precaution, and if a strict 
watch is kept day and night, a camp so con- 



CAMP RULES. 189 

structed, and defended by a few resolute men, 
armed with breech-loading rifles and revolvers, 
is a formidable place to assault even with greatly 
superior numbers. 

Should the party be too small to ofier much 
resistance, and its object be to pass through a 
hostile country without attracting observation, the 
greatest care must be observed, and if a tent is 
ever pitched, a hollow in a plain, or a patch of 
dense wood, must be selected for the camp. 

Dry wood, which makes very little smoke, 
should be burnt, and the horses should always be 
saddled and ready for a move. 
TheCamD Watchers and sentries should be 

posted on elevations in the daytime, 
and on low ground at night. They should patrol 
a short distance from the camp, and, if they hear 
the slightest noise^ ought to lie down with the 
ear close to the ground, by which means they 
may often detect an approaching footstep at a 
considerable distance. Sentries ought to be re- 
lieved every two hours^ if possible ; and even if 



190 CAMP GUARD. 

the number of the party is sxnall^ and the duty 
comes round very quickly, still a strict watch 
should be always kept. Two men, if properly 
posted, can command a large extent of ground; 
and it is better to have two watchers who keep 
wide awake and on the qui vive^ than a chain of 
sleepy sentries. When a man knows that the 
safety of his skin depends upon his keeping his 
eyes open, he is generally pretty well on the 
alert. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



HINTS TO TRAVELLERS. 

The Advantages of Travel— An Even Temper reqoired— The Cns- 
toms of a Oonntrj generally the Best to Adopt — On the Ad- 
vantages of Knowing the Language of the Conntry — ^Early 
Eising— The Stirrup Cup— Tiger's Milk— Claret Cup— Beef 
Tea — Striking Camp — Malarious Districts — ^Water — ^Boiling 
and Filtration— To Find Wateiv-Well-Binking^-Signs of 
Waters-Watering Cattle — ^Hard and Soft Water — Summer 
Beverages— Servants and Followers— The Watchfire— Hints 
in Cases of Illness— Fever — ^Dysentery. 

Much of a traveller's comfort depends upon 
himself^ and the best way of getting on is^ by 
never anticipating difficultieSy and making the 
lest of them when they come. Many of the 
inconveniences and privations of ** camp life " 
may be avoided or, at any rate, mitigated by 
forethought and timely precaution, which is only 
incidcated by experience; but the charms of a 



192 ADVANTAGES OF TRAVELLING. 

wanderer*s life are so many and varied, that they 
amply compensate for any little discomforts that 
he may meet with en route. 

We English are a nation of travellers ; and, as 
Sam Rogers says, ^^None want an excuse. If 
rich, they go to enjoy; if poor, to retrench; if 
sick, to recover ; if studious, to learn ; if learned, 
to relax from their studies. But whatever they 
may say, whatever they may believe, they go for 
the most part on the same errand ; nor will those 
who reflect, think that errand an idle one. 

*^ In travelling we improve imperceptibly, not in 
the head only, but in the heart. Our prejudices 
leave us ; seas and mountains are no longer our 
boundaries; we learn to love, to esteem, and 
admire beyond them. Our benevolence extends 
itself with our knowledge, and must we not return 
better than we went. The more highly we be- 
come acquainted with the institutions of other 
countries, the more must we value our own. Yet 
the enjoyment of travelling, like other pleasures, 
must be purchased at some little expense ; and he 



HINTS TO TRAVELLERS. 193 

whose good humour can be ruffled by every 
petty inconvenience he may chance to encounter 
had imquestionably better remain at home." 

The traveller should adapt himself to the cus- 
toms and ideas of the people in whose country 
he sojourns. He should always be a gentleman 
in his actions, never in his pretensions, and his 
real worth will become apparent, even amongst 
savages. Mental superiority will always com- 
mand respect, and in the desert a man will not 
be appreciated the more because his ancestor 
happened to be a great man, or that he is 
descended from a king's mistress. They judge 
him by his actions and his line of conduct. 

In travelling through a land where " might is 
right," although it is as well always to be pre- 
pared against treachery, suspicion ought never 
to be shown by any outward sign. 

It is always well to treat the inhabitants of the 
country through which you travel with familiar 
courtesy, and much information may be gained 
by mixing with them and entering into their 

O 



194 TRAVELLERS* QUALIFICATIONS. 

amusements. It is also advisable to fall into the 
peculiar customs of the country, as they are 
generally the best adapted to it, and although 
sometimes they may be a little inconvenient, it is 
generally much more so to run counter to them. 

A good knowledge of the language is an im- 
mense help. The Emperor Charles V. used to 
say that in proportion to the number of languages 
a man knew, he was so many more times a man. 
" A knowledge of the language of the country 
you travel in is as good as a filled purse ; as two 
pair of eyes, and one pair of ears ; for without it 
the one pair he possesses is likely to be of little 
use." Addison says, *^ When a traveller retumeth 
home, let his travel appear rather in his discourse 
than his apparel or gesture ; and in his discourse 
let him be rather advised in his answers than for- - 
ward to teU stories ; and let it appear that he doth 
. not change his country manners for those of 
foreign parts, but only prick in some flowers of 
that he hath learned abroad into the customs of 
his own country." 



EARLY RISING. 195^ 

He who sleeps with a forest tree for 

Early Bidng. 

his canopy^ a stone for his pillow, and 
the ground for his bed, is not likely to play the 
sluggard; and the sportsman who means work 
will be afoot as soon as the soft blue light of the 
morning becomes perceptible along the eastern 
horizon; for he knows that his best chance of 
falling in with large game is before the sun 
gets up. 
«mu ox. The traveller . should never start 

" The Stirrnp 

^P-" early in the morning upon an empty 

stomach. On the march, before leaving the 
bivouac, he should always take a cup of coffee, 
tea, or *^ something y* with a biscuit or crust of 
bread, to fortify the inner man, as the malarious 
vapours that rise from the ground have an inju- 
rious effect on an empty stomach. 

When Hulk and eggs are procurable, " Tiger^s 
tnUV^ is not a bad concoction for resuscitating 
nature. Eecipe — Beat up the yokes of six 
eggs well, with **a modicum^* or half-pint of 
spirit (rum or brandy), three lumps of sugar, a 

o Z 



196 THE STIRRUP CUP. 

bit of lemon peel cut thin^ and a little spice^ such 
as cloves or cardamums. Add a quart of new 
milk^ mix well^ grating in the £hird of a nutmeg, 
and you wiU have a stirrup cup for three persons. 

In hot weather, ^^ claret cup*^ is not a bad substi- 
tute. The following is the recipe of Arab Mac 
(a celebrated old Indian general, of great racing 
and sporting notoriety), who gloried in having 
the finest stud and the best kitchen in India : — 
" To a bottle of claret add three wineglasses of 
cognac, a couple of large table-spoons of sugar, 
the rind of a lirae cut thin, a dozen cloves, the 
seeds of three cardamum-pods, a quarter of a 
nutmeg, one green chili, a small sprig of borage, 
a dozen leaves of mint, and a threatening of lime- 
juice, or, what is perhaps better, a lime cut into 
thin slices. Let it stand for twenty minutes, and 
then add three bottles of cooled soda-water, stir- 
ring it up well, and serving it out with a ladle 
whilst in a state of effervescence." This brew 
makes a good drink for three people. 

Beef tea is also very good for a traveller to 



BEEF TEA. 197 

take in the early morning; and when ladies are of 
the party, it always ought to be ready, as they can 
often swallow that when they can take nothing 
solid. 

Beef tea is made with lean fresh meat, cut into 
small pieces the size of dice, put into a ** digester" 
or covered jar, which is again placed in a sauce- 
pan of water, and allowed to simmer until all the 
goodness is boiled out of the meat, when the juice 
extracted should be strained and flavoured with 
salt and pepper. When fresh meat is not ob- 
tainable, Liebig's Extract of JVIeat may be used. 
This extract contains the nutritious constituents 
of animal food, one ounce containing the soluble 
matter of about two pounds of fresh meat. Very 
good beef tea is made by dissolving a dessert- 
spoonful of the extract in a pint of boiling 
water, to which salt and pepper should be 
added. 
„^ ... When on the march, unless the head 

{Striking 

*°*^** servant can thoroughly be depended 

upon, it is advisable for one of the party to re- 



198 MALARIOUS DISTRICTS. 

main behind, to see the tents struck, the baggage 
packed, and the mules loaded. 

He should also see that no imposition has been 
attempted by any of the servants, and that there 
are no complaints *^ that supplies furnished have 
not been paid for." 
Malarious ^* ^ highly advisable not to cross 

Districts. i j i • 

low swampy ground, or malarious 
districts, until at least two hours after sunrise, 
as by that time much of the noxious vapour so 
deleterious to health, that rises from the ground 
during the night and early morning, has been 
dispelled. I would, at any time, rather risk the 
chance of a coup-de-soleil by travelling during 
the day, than expose myself to malaria during 
the night. 

One of the great causes of sickness 

Water. 

. ^ . .in tropical climates is bad water, and 
the traveller ought to make a rule, not to drink 
apy that has noiheen previously boiled and filtered , 
if he can possibly avoid it. 

In malarious districts, the water^ being exposed 



WATER. 199 

to an impure and foetid atmosphere^ absorbs the 
noxious gases, and becomes impregnated with 
poison. 

Again, in hot climates, water becomes tainted ' 
and unwholesome, by filtering through a porous 
soil full of organic impurities, caused by decom- 
posed animal and vegetable matter; and very often 
the poisonous ingredients absorbed cannot be de- 
tected by the senses, as neither the eye nor the 
palate of a tired and thirsty traveller are likely 
to discover the dangerous impregnation. 

Water taken from springs and streams is gene- 
rally better than that of pools, as still water soon 
becomes putrid, and full of a variety of living 
animals and vegetables. 

The best means of rendering such kinds of 
water wholesome, is by hoiling and titration : the 
former process destroys the animalculae, and the 
latter clears it from impurities. 

Were proper precautions taken by Government, 
cholera, typhus-fever and dysentery, the scourges 
of camp-life« would be comparatively unknown : 



200 WHERE TO FIND WATER. 

whereas, under the present rigimey when our 
army takes *^ the field," ten soldiers die of these 
diseases to one killed in action ; and this state of 
things is likely to continue, until ^' the Press '* 
takes up the matter, and forces our inert officials 
to look a little better after the welfare of our 
gallant defenders. 

To Find Travellers are sometimes put to great 

straits for want of water, whilst ex- 
ploring the arid wastes of Africa, and other thinly 
inhabited flat countries, where rain seldom falls, 
and every explorer should accustom himself to 
read the signs that indicate the presence of water. 

In a flat country, water may generally be found 
by digging wells in the beds of rivers, taking care 
to select the spot just below the junction of a tri- 
butary, and also paying attention to the formation 
and appearance of the sand, as it often indicates 
the line along which the stream last flowed by a 
winding undulation. 

In the bends of a river, deep holes are often 
formed by the force of the current, where water 



WELL SINKING. 201 

sometimes remains in pools long after the stream 
has ceased to run; and such places may often be dis- 
covered by following up the fresh tracks of animals. 
Should these be dry, wells must be sunk in the 
places where the ground appears to be the lowest. 
In moimtainous districts small springs are 
generally found amongst primary rocks; but 
after a long drought, search should be made in 
the water-courses that wind through the bottom of 
the deepest ravines, where pools of water often 
remain all the year round. Should these prove 
dry, there is no alternative but to dig in the 
places where water appears to have been last; 
and the most likely places are often indicated by 
the greenest vegetation, or by plants that in that 
country are usually found near water. 

In sinking wells, the presence of 

Well-siiiking. 

water is indicated by moist sand or 
earth, before it makes its appearance, as — unless 
a spring is struck by chance — the water takes 
some time to filter through the sides of the well, 
and at first it generally collects very slowly. 



202 SIGNS OF WATER* 

In sinking wells in the beds of rivers in Africa^ 
I have had to construct basket-work gabions to 
prevent the sand from falling in as fast as I dug 
it out, and sometimes I have had to work very 
cautiously on account of falling in with *^ quick- 
sands." 
Sums of ^^ searching for water, a line should 

be formed, and the most insignificant 
sign must not be overlooked. The fresh track of 
animals may be followed when they appear to 
converge, more especially if difierent species 
have passed over the ground in the same direc- 
tion. Flights of birds should be watched, as the 
feathered race generally drink morning and even- 
ing ; whenever they are numerous, water cannot 
be far off. 

All animals in a wild state make for water by 
instinct, but when domesticated they generally 
appear to lose the faculty; although, sometimes, 
I have seen horses, oxen, and dogs start off in a 
bee-line to a pool of water in a country where 
they had never been before. 



ABSTINENCE FROM LIQUIDS* 203 

In following up the trail of a wounded animal^ 
I have often come unexpectedly across a stream, 
or pool; as the loss of blood causes intense thirst, 
and, if not disabled or too closely followed up, 
most animals will seek for water, and even drink 
until they fall dead. I have seen both antelope 
and elephant do this. 

In some of the most arid parts of Africa, there 
are certain plants full of sap, which antelope are 
very fond of, and sometimes, in case of emergency, 
I have kept my mouth moistened, and my lips 
from sticking together,.by chewing the pulp. At 
other times, when very hardly pressed, I have 
drank the liquid contained in the paunch of 
different animals I have killed. 

" Habit is second nature," and the more-a man 
drinks, the more he wants : a hunter should ac- 
custom himself to drink at his morning and even- 
ing meals only ; and he ought to be able to go 
through a hard day's work, even under a tropical 
sun, by only moistening his mouth from time to 
time with a couple of spoonftils of boiled water. 



204 WATERING CATTLE. 

or, what is better still foi qaeoching thirst, cold 
weak tea, without milk or sugar. 

„ , . Horses and cattle should be accus- 

Watering 

* "' tomed to drink out of a trough, if pos- 

sible, otherwise when the only water obtainable 
has to be drawn from shallow frells in the beds of 
rivers, they will fill them up and cause much 
extra labour. When travelling with waggons or 
baggage animals, a small force-pump and hose, as 
previously described, ought always to be carried. 



, Hose, and Trough. 



HARD AND SOFT WATER, 205 

SB with it the animals are watered with far less 
labour^ and the water in the wells remains undis- 
turbed. 

„ , Soft water is preferable to hard 

* * water for all culinary purposes. Mon- 
sieur Soyer, the celebrated artist in cooking, 
declared that where, with soft water, five cups of 
tea might be made, only three cups could be got 
with hard water, from equal quantities of the 
leaf. Soft or distilled water, he says, has an 
extraordinary power in obtaining a full extract. 
Vegetables cooked in soft water are quickly done, 
and the flavour of the vegetables is in the water ; 
whilst those cooked in the hard water never 
become tender, nor does the flavour go into the 
water. In extracting the juice or gravy from 
meat, soft water does it quickly and well ; but 
hard water, instead of opening the meat, seems 
to draw it closer together, and to solidify the al- 
bumen, whilst it fails to extract the true flavour 
of the meat. For bread-making, soft water is of 
great importance. 



206 SUMMER BEYEBAGE* 

The effect of hard water on animals is very- 
apparent. Horses have an instinctive love for 
soft water, and they refuse hard water if they can 
possibly get soft. Hard water produces a rough 
and staring coat on horses, and renders them 
liable to gripes. 

« Pure fruit syrups, such as manu- 

Beverage. f^^^^^^ by Sainsbury, 176, Strand, 

when mixed with cold water, or soda water, 
when you have it, form a very delicious and 
refreshing beverage in hot weather. 

The best way of cooling the water, when ice 
is not to be procured, is to wrap the bottle or 
vessel containing it in a wet cloth, and expose it 
to a current of air, allowing the rays of the sun 
to shine on it, when practicable. The cloth must 
he kept wei^ and thorotcgMy caver the vessel. 

The principle fruit syrups which will keep in 

tropical climates are lemon, orange, raspberry, 

strawberry, apple, and red and black currant. 

„ . , Much of a traveller s comfort de- 
Servants and 

FoUowoTB. pgn^ upon the capabilities of his 



SERVANTS AND FOLLOWERS. 207 

seryants, and my experience leads me to beKeve 
that it is much better to gain their confidence bjr 
kind treatment, and showing that you have an in- 
terest in their welfare, than by harsh measures and 
'^badgering." If you look after their comfort 
they will look after yours, and a kind and con- 
siderate master makes a devoted follower. Always 
listen to your followers' complaints, whether real 
or imaginary : if they are real, remedy them ; if 
imaginary, reason with them patiently, and point 
out the fallacy of their arguments. Make yourself 
thoroughly acquainted with their character and 
manners, then it is not difficult to remove their 
prejudices. 

Should insubordination show itself amongst 
your people, investigate the came thoroughly 
be/ore you act, then be very firm ; in such cases 
half-measures will not do. 

Should punishment be absolutely required, 
let it be severe and siunmary, as the example 
will be greater, and it will be more seldom 
required. Never strike or flog a man yourself^ 



208 WOMEN FOLLOWERS. 

if you can help it, but let him be punished by 
one of his fellows, in your presence. It has a 
better effect. 

Keward your followers liberally for extra ser- 
vices. Tobacco, grog in moderation, should be 
served out in the evening, when they behave 
properly. 

Do what you can to keep them cheerful, by 
promoting merriment amongst them. I like to 
hear my fellows sing and chaff good-humouredly 
amongst themselves as they work ; and I believe 
in an old Indian saying, ^'A light heart can 
carry an elephant ; a long face stumbles under 
the weight of his turban.'* 

In India and Africa I never make any objec- 
tion to my followers being accompanied by their 
women, as I rarely found them cause any delay 
whilst on the march, and they were often very 
useful. Besides, they keep the camp lively and 
the men contented; and even if they occasion 
" a row" now and again, it does not much matter, 
for it serves to break the monotony. 



THE WATCHFIRE. 209 

The Watch- When upon a hunting excursion, 
and very often whilst campaigning, it 
has been an established custom for my people to 
assemble round the watchfire in front of my tent 
at sunset, and, if possible, I always attend myself, 
and see that my head-servant goes round and 
distributes to each man his rations for the next 
day, an allowaace of tobacco, and, if I have it, a 
glass of grog. 

After the distribution I always make a point 
of asking if all my people are satisfied 
and if anyone has a grievance or complaint 
to make, I endeavour to settle it then and 
there. 

Then those who have charge of my animals, 
such as horses, mules, bul^pcks, sheep, goats, 
dogs, and poultry, inform me as to their con- 
dition; whilst my head-servant arranges matters 
concerning the commissariat — an important ar- 
rangement when there are many mouths to fill, 
and rather a responsible one when all the party 
depend upon their master's gun for food. 

p 



210 FOLLOWEES' CONFIDENCE. 

The orders for the morrow are then given, the 
line of route settled, and each man is made to 
understand what he has to do. 

Business settled, the events of the day and the 
prospects of the morrow are talked over; the 
habits of wild animals and hunting exploits are 
discussed; tales are told, songs chanted, and 
anyone of the party may join in the conversa- 
tion. 

During my wanderings in differents parts of 
the world my followers have presented a great 
diversity of appearance, and I have had to do 
with all kinds of characters; but I found the 
same line of conduct answer for all, no matter 
what nation, tribe, or caste they belonged to, and 
the result of my experience is contained in the 
following advice : Treat them kindly, pay them 
fairly, listen to them patiently, humour their 
prejudices, respect their feelings, do not interfere 
with their religion ; and after a short time you 
will find that you have gained their confidence, 
and in your hour of need they will not desert 



HINTS ON ILLN£SS. 211 

you. When master and (Servants understand 
each other, and pull together, " camp life" is the 
happiest existence I know of. 

My "gatherings" have often been a modey 
crew — a rough and reckless lot of desperate men, 
of different colours, race, and creed, bound by no 
tie, and heeding no law — ^yet perfect unanimity 

night have we passed reclining round the watch- 
fire after a hard day's work, a sharp skirmish, or 
a great hunt, when wild songs were sung, strange 
tales were told, and many a hoarse peal of merri- 
ment rang through the night-air, as the jest went 
round. Loudly we laughed, and litde we recked 
for the morrow. 

HintainCaae ^® *^^ great maladies that a 
sportsman is liable to in malarious 
regions are fever and dysentery, both of which, 
if not checked, are apt to end fatally. 

Fever in its mildest form is gene- 

Ferer. 

rally intermittent — ^that is, there are 
intervals of health between the attacks ; but as 

r2 



212 SYMPTOMS OF FEVER* 

the disease becomes more aggravated^ it as- 
sumes the remittent form^ and the symptoms 
only remits change their aspect^ and do not 
disappear. 

Fever rarely lays its victim pro- 
strate at once. The malarious poison 
that engenders it has a period of incubation^ and 
breaks out some days after the primary symptoms 
are evinced — ^which are, a sense of lassitude and 
languor, accompanied by yawning and stretch- 
ing, restlessness, want of sleep, loss of appetite, 
duU eyes, dizziness, and an incapacity to con^ 
centrate the ideas; chills come over the body, and 
a dull heavy pain racks the loins and kidneys, 
which often cease to act. Then comes intense 
headache, cramps which seem to draw up the 
body, and the hot stage, which often brings 
on delirium and a state of coma; from which 
condition the patient either awakes in the next 
world, or finds himself bathed in profuse per- 
spiration, greatly prostrated, but relieved from 
pain. 



ITS TREATMENT. 213 

Then is the time to take quinine in 
Treatmont* 

as large doses as the system will bear. 

Should no medical advice be at hand^ and the 
patient be alone in the bush^ he cannot do wrong, 
when in that stage^ by taking quinine until his 
head feels so dizzy that everything appears to 
turn round, keeping himself covered up, and 
only drinking hot weak lemonade, so as make him 
perspire as much as possible. 

. Sometimes the fever is killed at once by this 
sharp but severe treatment ; but at others, attack 
comes after attack, and paroxysm follows pa- 
roxysm, each one leaving the patient weaker than 
the last, until the crisis is passed and the disease 
wears itself out, and gradually becomes weaker 
in its shocks, or, on the other hand, its victim 
sinks under it, and passes away in a state of in- 
sensibility. 

In tropical climates, delays are dan- 
Preoaatioxis. 

gerous, and the slightest symptom 

should be immediately met with decided and 

energetic treatment. Constant doses of quinine 



214 DYSENTERY. 

should be taken daily^ more especially when ex- 
posed to the dew^ rain^ night-air^ or the malaria 
engendered by winds blowing over swampy 
ground or decomposed vegetation. 

My experience leads me to believe 

Dysentery. - , . . 

that the only cure for dysentery is im- 
mediate removal out of tropical climates ; other- 
wise^ it almost always ends fatally. 

Upon the first symptoms^ take an 

Treatment. 

emetic of ipecacuanha, and in the 
morning a mild aperient (as 15 grains of rhubarb 
and 2 grains of calomel) ; on the following day 
2 grains of ipecacuanha^ with a quarter of a grain 
of opium, three or four times within the twenty- 
four hours, eating nothing but plain boiled rice 
sweetened with sugar. 

If this does not stop the complaint, and the 
tenesmus gives the well-known sign of decided dy- 
sentery, a dose of 20 grains of calomel with a quar- 
ter-grain of opium should be taken, which must 
be followed next morning with a dose of castor 
oU. This generally cuts the matter short ; but it 



OPHTHALMIA. 215 

is as well to follow it up with 2 grains of ipecacU'* 
anha^ and ^-grain of opinm^ four times witliin the 
twenty-four hours^ for two or three days after : 
chlorodyne is also of great service. 

This disease is often brought on 
*^ by sudden transition irom excessive 

dryness to damp ; glare from the snow or desert ; 
or from dust and sand being blown into the eyes. 
In cases of inflammation of the eyes^ first remove 
the irritation with warm-water fomentations ; then 
bathe with a lotion composed of 2 grains of sul- 
phate of copper dissolved in an ounce of distilled 
or rose water ; and for the first stage of ophthal- 
mia, drop into the eye one or two drops of the 
following lotion : 10 grains of sulphate of zinc in 
one ounce of distilled or rose water. 

Of course I need not observe, that in case of 
any disease of the eye making its appearance, 
the first thing to be done is to obtain the best 
medical advice. 

My hints are only intended for adoption when 
no surgeon is at hand. 



216 USEFUL RECIPES. 

Useful Eecipes. ^ix a pint of drying oil, two 
To render Shooting onnces of yellow wax, two ounces 

Boots Waterproof. 

of turpentine, and half an ounce 
of Burgundy pitch, carefully over a slow fire. Lay 
the mixture whilst hot on the boots with a sponge 
or soft brush, and when they are dry lay it on again 
and again, until the leather becomes quite satu- 
rated — that is to say, will hold no more ; let them 
then be put away, and not be worn until they 
are perfecdy dry and elastic; they wUl after- 
wards be found not only impenetrable to wet, but 
soft and pliable, and of much longer duration. 
Or, take of equal quantities of beeswax and 
mutton suet, and melt them together in an earthen 
pipkin over a slow fire ; lay the mixture while 
hot on the boots, which ought to be made warm 
also ; let them stand before the fire a short time, 
for them to soak the preparation in, and then put 
them away until quite cold ; when they are so, 
rub them dry with a piece of flannel, in order 
not to grease your blacking-brushes. If you 
black them well before you put the mixture on. 



TRAP FOR ANIMALS. 21T 

you will find thein take the blacking much better 
afterwards, 

T Preflfi "^^ natives of India preserve meat, 

^^*- which they call '' Ding-ding," by cut- 

ting it into long strips, into which they rub salt, 
ground spices, and then dry in the sun until it 
becomes as dry as a board. 

When required for use, it is allowed to soak in 
water for a couple of hours to soften, and is then 
broiled over embers, when it is not at all unpalat- 
able, and often constituted the principal part of 
a Shekarry's fere whilst on trail. 




The Baop Tip Trap» 



The Rasp Tip Trap, invented by Mr. Pringle, 
of Alnwick, is one of the test for catching small 
animals aKve. The animals are caught between 
two convex surfaces, as between the fore and 



218 HOW TO DESTROY FLIES. 

middle fingers of the liand when half-closed^ and 
so securely held that escape is ahnost impossible. 
No bones are fractured^ nor muscles lacerated by 
the action of the trap. 

T D atro ^^* ^ handful of quassia into a white 
^' basin^ and pour a pint of boiling- 

water over it ; let it cool, and sprinkle a little 
sugar over it as a greater inducement. It will 
draw away and kiU all flies. 



CHAPTER IX. 



"HINTS TO SPORTSMEN. 



» 



Deer-StaDdng^-Ohamois and Ibex Himtiiig^-Feline AnimalB-* 
Elephant-Hontiiig^-Pig-Stioking^-Dmnb OompaiiionB. 

jj^^ There is no animal more shy or 

* solitary by nature than the stag. He 
takes alarm from every living thing in the forest ; 
the slightest sounds be it only the fall of a leaf or 
the scratching of a jungle fowl^ will scare and set 
him off in a moment. Except in certain embar- 
rassed situations^ they always run up windy their 
great security lying in their extreme keenness of 
scent^ for they can smell a taint in the air at an 
almost incredible distance. 

When a hart is disabled and run down by dogs, 
and he feels that he cannot escape by speed, he 



220 DEER-STALKINO. 

will choose the best position he can^ and defend 
himself to the last extremity with his antlers. 
Powerful dogs may pull down a full-grown stag 
when running and breathless^ but not a cold hart 
(one that has not been wounded) when he stands 
at bay^ for he takes such a sweep with his antlers 
that he could exterminate a whole pack^ should 
they attack in front only. 

Deer^ like many other animals^ seem to foresee 
every change of weather, for they leave the hills 
and descend into the plains whenever any rough 
weather is about to take place. 

The deer-stalker should not only be able to run 
like an antelope, but he should possess the bottom 
of an Arab horse, to enable him to keep the game 
in view; he should be able to creep like a leo- 
pard, and to run with his back bent almost 
double, and at a pinch to wriggle himself along 
the ground, ventre h terre^ like an eel. He should 
be able to wade or swim torrents, to keep his 
footing on slippery water-worn stones, remem- 
bering, if he does fall, to keep his rifle dry. 



HINTS ON DEER-STALKING. 221 

wliatever becomes of himself. He should never 
go rashly to work, keeping always cooly wary^ 
and steady y never allowing any untoward circum- 
stances to interfere with his equanimity and self- 
possession. 

Before commencing operations, he should care- 
fully survey his line of route, marking any cover 
that inequalities in the ground, or bushes, rocks, 
etc., might give. I need not add, that tempe- 
rance and moderation go a long way to keep the 
hand in and the nerves steady. When X first 
began deer-stalking, my mentor endeavoured to 
instil the following general rules in my mind, 
and several years' subsequent experience has 
proved to me that his theory is correct. Be on 
your ground betimes in the morning ; consult the 
clouds, and keep well to the leeward, even if you 
have to make a circuit of miles; he silent as the 
grave; when you step on stones or dry leaves, etc., 
tread as lightly as a ghost; keep under cover; 
exercise extreme judgment in approaching your 
game, which is a happy mixture of wary caution 



222 CHAMOIS HUNTINa 

combined with prompt decision and boldness of 
execution. Memo. — All this is useless^ if you do 
not use straight powder. 

Hunting the chamois^ ibex^ and 

^JnmiSf crea^^^^s of ^t cl^s, although in- 
tensely exciting sporty is the most 
difficult of all deer-stalking^ and proves the 
severest test of the qualifications of a hunter ; for 
not only are these animals exceedingly shy and 
watchful^ but they are also gifted with remark- 
ably keen sights and their senses of smelling and 
hearing are developed to an extraordinary degree. 
From the almost inaccessible nature of the ground 
on which they are founds he who would take 
their spoils should be endued with great strength^ 
perseverance^ and endurance^ besides which he 
must have the agility of a mountaineer and a 
steady head^ or he can never follow up his game 
to their haunts^ along narrow ledges of scarped 
rocks and beetling heights^ where a false step or 
a moment's giddiness would entail certain de- 
struction. There can be no doubt but that 



HABITAT OF THE CHAMOIS. 223 

intense excitement takes away all dread of dan- 
ger, for I have seen it exemplified many times, 
not only on the hunting-ground but also on the 
field of battle. An ardent hunter, like a daring 
soldier, possesses a mental energy superior to all 
thought of peril; for, seeking only the attain- 
ment of his purpose, he pursues his course with 
that dogged stubbornness, inflexibility of pur- 
pose, and recklessness of self-preservation that 
make him invincible, and ensure success in the 
end. 

Chamois, ibex, mouflon, burrul, gooral, surrow, 
thaar, markore, oves-ammon, and other grega- 
rious animals of the wild goat or sheep species, 
are generally found amongst the rugged crags 
of the loftiest ranges, their food chiefly consisting 
of the difierent mosses and short crisp delicate 
herbage indigenous to high altitudes. 

They seem litde affected by cold, for in the 
daytime they remain in the most secluded and 
inaccessible spots, far above the limits of vegeta- 
tion, and in the evening move downwards towards 



224 SCENT OF THE CHAMOIS. 

their feeding grounds. In summer the males 
separate from the females^ and in a body resort 
to the higher regions. Generally speaking the 
females are very inferior in size to the males^ and 
have much smaller horns. 

A wary old buck, who has often quite a pa- 
triarchal appearance, is generally chosen as the 
leader of the herd; and if he sees anything 
suspicious, or catches a taint in the air, a peculiar 
whisde alarms the rest, causing them to collect 
together and remain on the alert, and on a re- 
petition of the signal away they scamper, always 
ascending or descending a slope in an oblique 
direction. Sometimes I have seen an old female 
lead the herd, and on such occasions I have 
always found it extremely difficult to get within 
range, as they are doubly cunning. 

^''^°^^* and animals of this genus, are ge- 
nerally hunted either by stalking, beating, sitting 
up by water, or near the carcass of some animal 
they have killed. 



FELINE ANIMALS. 225 

The great secret necessary to ensure success 
in this kind of shooting is never to pull trig- 
ger unless certain of striking the game in a 
vital spot, and again, always to keep a shot 
in reserve, in case of a wounded animal 
charging. 

I need not say that extreme coolness is as 
much required as accuracy of marksmanship, 
and anyone who feels '^ that he even has nerves " 
had better confine his attentions to game that will 
not retaliate when wounded. 

None of the feline race, with the exception 
of man-eaters, which are few and far between, 
will attack men, unless provoked. They always 
avoid his presence, and the taint even of his 
footstep in the forest will often make them turn 
aside and leave the neighbourhood* 

These animals are all very tenacious of life, 
and the hunter should always endeavour to shoot 
them either through the brain or the heart. I 
have often dropped them stone-dead with a 
bullet right between the eyes, or by aiming just 

Q 



226 ELEPHANT-HUNTING. 

behind the shoulder-blade, as the fore-arm moves 

forward in walking. 

El hant- ^^^ sportsman who is a fair shot, 

°^^' cool, steady, persevering, and active, 
may count upon killing heavy bags of most kinds 
of game with tolerable certainty; but he who 
would slay the elephant in his trackless jungle- 
home must have other qualities combined, or he 
will fail in his attempt. 

The elephant-hunter must have a thorough 
knowledge of the nature and habits of that 
sagacious animal, whose keenly-developed senses 
far exceed that of any other denizen of the forest; 
he must be weU acquainted with its peculiar 
structure and anatomy, or his bullet, however 
true, will never reach the vital part with any 
certainty ; he must be an adept at ^^ tracking," or 
following spoor, and in the understanding of 
jungle signs, which, although a natural gift to the ^ 
red men of the Far West and Indian jungle-tribes, 
is only acquired by intense study and long 
practice,* he must be patient and enduring. 



BLEPH ANT- HUNTING. 227 

satisfied with hard fare and short commons, as he 
>nll often have to subsist wholly upon his gun, 
with the ground for his bed, and a forest tree for 
his canopy. He should feel with the great poet, 
that '* there is society where none intrudes;" 
for he must often be content with nature and his 
own thoughts as companions, and he must not let 
his spirits be depressed by the solitude and 
intense stillness of the deep jungle. 

The hunter must sleep like a hare, always on 
the alert, ever prepared and watchful; for he 
never knows what he may meet, or the danger a 
moment may bring forth. Inured to peril, he 
must never be cast-down or faint of heart ; or he 
had better not attempt to follow up the spoor of 
the elephant to his haunts in the dense, deep 
jungle, where the rays of the sun seldom 
penetrate, and the woodman's axe was never 
heard — where the deadliest of fevers lurk in 
places the most beautiftd to the eye ; and where, 
with the exception of certain times in the year, 
the air and the water are poisoned by malaria, 

q2 



228 HOG-HUNTING. 

and impregnated by the exhalations of decayed 
leaves and decomposed vegetable matter^ en- 
tailing certain death to the hunter, were he 
tempted to follow up his perilous calling out of 
season. 

Hog-hunting, or pig-sticking, as 

Hog-Hunting. 

carried out in India, is a truly regal 
sport, being the incarnation of all that is exciting. 
It combines all the attractions of fox-hunting 
with the excitement of steeple-chasing, height- 
ened by that intense fascination which the pre- 
sence of danger only can inspire. It is con- 
siderably over twenty years since I took my 
maiden spear, yet there are times when every 
incident of that memorable day comes vividly 
before me, and in my mind's eye I see the well- 
remembered forms of my old associates in the 
forest and the field, and think I hear their joyous 
voices resounding in my ears. In both the 
Deccan and the Nugger Hunts, after Her Ma- 
jesty's health had been drunk. Bob Morris's chant 
was ever '^ the opening lay," so I give the words. 



J Li^Ljij^^K^m^mgi^g^ 



SONG OP THE BOAR. 229 

THE BOAB. 

The boaar, the mighty boar's my fheme, 

Whatever the wise may say — 
My morning thought, my midnight dream, 

My hope throughout the day; 
Youth's daring spirit, manhood's fire, 

Firm hand ipd eagle eye. 
Must they acquire who dare aspire 

To see the wild boar die ! 

Olosub. 
Then pledge the boar, the mighty boar, 

Fill high the oup for me. 
Here's luok to all who fear no SelII, 

And the next gray boar we see. 

We envy not the rich their wealth. 

Nor kings their crowned career; 
The saddle is our throne of health. 

Our sceptre is the spear. 
We rival, too, the warrior's pride. 

Deep stained with crimson gore ; 
For our field of fame's the jungle side, 

And our foe the jungle boar. 

C%oni*— Then pledge the boar, Ac. 

When age hath weakened manhood's powers, 

And every nerve unbraced. 
These scenes of joy will still be ours, 

On memory's tablet traced; 
And with the friends whom death hath spared, 

When youth's wild course is run. 
We'll tell of the dangers we have shared. 

And the tushes that we have won. 

Chorua—Thea pledge the boar, Ao. 



230 DUMB COMPANIONS. 

If I have endeavoured to impress 
Companions. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^£ ^^ traveUer the 

absolute necessity of treating his followers of the 
human species with consideration^ if he has any 
regard for his own personal comfort, how much 
more strongly would I urge him to look after the 
welfare of those servants who cannot complain 
when they are neglected or ill-treated, or leave 
his service if they are dissatisfied with it. I refer 
to his horses and dogs. 

Animals appreciate kindness as well, if not 
better than men; and patience and gentle treat- 
ment will do much more in the breaking in of a 
horse or a dog, than harsh measures and beating. 

During the wild life I have been leading for many 
years, my faithful companions of the brute crea- 
tion have borne a conspicuous part; and it has 
ever been my maxim to endeavour to make them 
look upon man as their friend, and I teach them 
to obey me from love rather than fear. Vice is 
engendered by ill-treatment — kindness is never 
thrown away, 



"T-^ 



■ ■ ..i MT i MP iiiii tfttf l ** ■. Xr»^>H^#^^i^PW^iii^PP^PiPlP>^WipBipPWiMW|P^iyBWMiPipq 



CARE FOR YOUR HORSE. 231 

*' Feed your horse well, groom him properly, 
work him with moderation, and he will do you 
good service," was General Sir Walter Raleigh 
Gilbert's advice to every youngster on joining 
his regiment ; which precept the veteran carried 
out in practice, and the consequence was, that in 
the pursuit of the Seikh army, his nags were in 
the best condition of any in the force. 

I am of opinion that the manner of living of a 
dog has as much to do in bringing out his 
qualities as the mere education or breaking in; 
for instance, Ponto, a favourite hound who was 
my companion for several years in the woods, by 
living constantly with his master instead of in the 
kennel, sleeping near him either in the bungalow 
or by the watch-fire, and seeing and hearing 
everything that went on, had not only learnt the 
meaning of what he saw, but also, in a most 
wonderftd manner, could understand almost 
everything that was said, either relating to 
himself, the ordinary routine of camp life, or his 
duty in the field. He knew that it was my 



232 " PONTO. 



>f 



custom before I got up in the morning to haye 
cooled soda-water in cantonment, or black cofiee 
in camp ; and if the servant whose business it was 
to prepare it happened to oversleep himself, I 
had only to tell Ponto, and he would rouse him 
at once, distinguishing him from the rest of the 
seryants without the slightest hesitation, although 
a dozen of them might be lying on mats in the 
yerandah, all entirely enyeloped in the same kind 
of white chedder or sheet. He also knew most 
of my people by name, and would bring them to 
me wheneyer I ordered him. After all kinds of 
game, small as well as large, I neyer saw his 
equal; for wheneyer anything was afoot, by 
watching his master's looks, he seemed to un- 
derstand his meaning. He would retrieye a 
snipe, or track a wounded tiger, with equal 
certainty; in the latter case, leading his master 
fearlessly and quietly a pace in adyance along 
the trail with the greatest precision and address. 
When out deer-stalking, he would creep along by 
my side with the greatest caution^ neyer showing 



■■^■■■■^■■■■■■i 



pro's COURAGE. 233 

; the sKghtest noise. When I 
a, and after I had fired, if the 
wounded, he would follow up 
.e most untiring perseverance, 
wounded animal from the rest 
never leaving the trail, .what- 
might encounter en route, until 
to bay, when, showing the 
L avoiding the horns, he would 
throat and strangle him; or 
5 too powerful for him alone — 
' the case, except when only 
—he would show great cunning 
n attracting its attention, so as 
ipe, giving tongue until I came 
lad killed the game, or if he 
would trot back, look up in my 
lar expression, whine with de- 
ad me up to the spot where he 
great delight was large game 
ilthough he always preferred 
accompanying me on such occasions, yet he would 



234 FONTO A JUDOl. 

go with anyone else if I ordered him, looking to 
him only for orders whilst with him. I think he 
sometimes looked upon snipe-shooting in the hot 
weather as rather a bore; for — although he never 
seemed to get fatigued in the forest — after some 

a 

hours' tramping through the paddy fields and 
mud^ I have seen him quite done up, and heard 
him growl and grumble as he went along, as if 
he thought lejeu ne vautpas la chandelle. He 
looked upon an indifferent shot with the most 
supreme contempt, and the manner m which he 
showed his indignation at bad shooting was some- 
times highly amusing. In cantonment he lived 
on terms of friendship with numerous kinds of 
tame animals, against which in their wild state he 
was accustomed to wage war ; and young bears, 
hunting leopards, deer, antelope, monkeys, mon- 
geese, pea-fowl, and partridge, that I kept about 
the house, were allowed to wander unmolested, 
although he seemed to wish to keep aloof from 
them, and never encouraged any undue famili- 
arity. With Gooty, my favourite Mahratta pony. 



" GOOTY." 235 

however, the case was very different, for the 
reciprocal affection between these two faithful 
servants was something extraordmary. 

Ponto used to visit the pony in his stall many 
times during the day, often carrying to him 
biscuits or scraps of bread from his own food, 
and Gooty would neigh and whinny in recog- 
nition of the dog's whine. With the rest of my 
canine followers he was ever the acknowledged 
leader, although he used to assume quite an 
aristocratic bearing with them, seeming at all 
times to prefer his master's society to their diver- 
sions. Even my huge Poligar hounds, who were * 
almost as big as donkeys, used to pay him the 
most deferential respect ; and I have often been 
much struck with the extraordinary power he 
had in communicating to them his ideas and 
wishes. 

I may very fairly attribute much of the success « 
I have had in large game shooting to the un- 
erring instinct of my dogs in tracking. My dogs 
never left my heel in the forest, except when set 



236 GOOD DOGS. 

on trail. On scent, no jungle, however thick, or 
rocks, however steep, could check their course ; 
no stream, however rapid, could discourage 
them ; they would enter without splashing, cross 
and double about from bank to bank, until they 
recovered the scent, and when they came up 
with their quarry, would keep him at bay until 
I had time to get up. • With a good horse, a 
good dog, and a good gun, there are lands where 
a man who knows how to use them may live in 
luxury, without ever feeling the depressing effects 
of that baneful disease, '^ impecuniosity." 



' 



CHAPTER X. 



HINTS TO NATURALISTS.* 



Mammalift — On Skinning and Preserving ATiiTna.U of this Class — 
On Preserving the Skeletons — ^Birds — On Skinning, Pre- 
serving, and Packing, so as not to Iignre the Plumage — 
Birds' Eggs^Nests — ^Reptiles and Fish, How to Preserve 
them — ^Insects, Where to Find them, How to Catch them, 
and the Best Manner of Preserving them*— Butterflies 
and Moths — ^Beetles — Spiders, Scorpions, etc. — Crustacea — 
Sponges and Corallines — Star-fish and Echini — ^Land and 
Fresh-water Shells— Marine Shells, and Where to Find them 
— Dredging— The Collector's Note Book — Instruments re- 
quired — ^Beoipe for Arsenical Soap, and How to Use it. 

Small animals of this class may 

either be skinned or inclosed entire 

(an incision being previously made in the \mder 

side of the animal) in jars or barrels^ which are 



* The author is indebted to Mr. S. Stevens, the naturalist, for 
this valuable compilation of practical information. 



238 MAMMALIA. 

to be filled up with some spirituous liquor, as gin^ 
or, what is preferable when it can be procured, 
proof-spirit diluted with half its bulk of water. 
If no spirit can be had, strong brine must be 
adopted. In respect to their retaining their na- 
tural colour, brine is even preferable to spirituous 
liquors for preserving the specimens. To skin 
the larger mammalia, make an incision in a straight 
line along the belly, from the rent to the throat, 
and detach the skin carefully with the knife. 
The skull and the bones of the legs and feet are 
to be left ; the brain, eyes and tongue must be 
extracted, and as little fat as possible be suffered 
to remain adhering to the inside of the skin, 
which is then to be dressed with arsenical soap, 
for the mode of making and applying which see 
note at end. If, however, some fat remain which 
cannot well be got rid of, strew it over with 
powdered tan, or the bark of oak, willow, &c., 
previously to applying the soap. The ears, lips 
and feet of large mammalia should, when practi- 
cable, be well anointed with spirits of turpentine. 



MAMMALIA. 239 

which will assist their drying and tend to destroy 
insects : when dry, roll up the skin with the hair 
innermost, beginning with the head, and put a 
layer of dried grass or moss between the folds, to 
prevent its being injured by rubbing. The skin 
J must be occasionally unrolled and examined, and, 
if practicable, exposed to a hot sun, and fresh 
spirits of turpentine added. If any symptoms 
of insects should appear, tobacco (the stronger 
the better) strewed in the package will be ser- 
viceable ; and in countries where spices and 
aromatic drugs can be procured at a reasonable 
rate, these may be used to great advantage, and 
even supersede the necessity of applying the 
arsenical soap. When a very large animal has 
been killed, under circumstances which prevent 
the application of the arsenical soap, the skin should 
be stretched out on the branches of a tree, to give 
the air free access to every part of it, and, as soon 
as it is cold, well dressed on the inside with wood 
ashes. Entire skeletons (especially of the rarer 
animals) should be procured when possible. It 



240 BIRDS. 

is not necessary that they should be jointed or set 
up^ but^ having removed all the soft parts^ boil 
the bones^ and when well dried pack them with 
moss or grass^ or the best packing-stuff at hand^ 
so that they may travel securely. Take especial 
care that not a bone^ toothy or claw^ be lost. 

With respect to birds, the collector 

BirdB. 

should proportion his shot to their 

size, so as to injure the skin and feathers as 

little as possible. As soon as the bird falls, the 

blood should be carefully wiped up, and cotton 

placed within the beak to absorb any that might 

flow from the mouth, and thus prevent its staining 

the plumage. Birds should be skinned as soon 

as may be after they are killed, for, if suffered 

to remain till putrefaction has begun, the feathers 

fall off. The mode of skinning birds is very 

similar to that of skinning mammalia, and equal 

care must be taken both to make the incisions as 

small as possible and in the least visible parts^ 

and the feathers must be separated so as not be 

injured by the knife in dividing the skin: the 



PRESERVING BIRDS. 241 

incision may be made from the vent to the breast: 
the head and legs must in all cases be carefully 
preserved, and the os coccygis left in the skin, 
otherwise the tail-feathers will be liable to drop 
out. In packing the skins care must be taken 
that the plumage be not injured by contact with 
the harder parts, which for that purpose should 
be surrounded with cotton, tow, or the best soft 
packing material at hand, as dried leaves or grass. 
When more than one individual of the same 
species can be procured, it is desirable that a 
second specimen should be preserved in spirits, 
and the same remark applies to the smaller mam- 
malia, and indeed to all the orders. The bird- 
skins must be dressed with the same materials as 
those of the mammalia, but the arsenical soap — if 
used at all'— must not be too liberally applied. 
As the plumage of birds varies extremely at dif- 
ferent periods of their life, and even at diiferent 
seasons of the year, it is of great importance to 
obtain both sexes, if possible, of all ages, from 
the chick just hatched to the adult in its maturest 



242 birds' NESTa 

plumage^ and also in their snmmer and winter 
liveries. Birds' eggs should also be anxiously 
sought for^ and the species carefully identified: 
the best method of emptying them is to make a 
single hole near the middle of the shelly of about 
an eighth of an inc)i in diameter^ into which a 
small tube is to be inserted^ so as nearly to touch 
the opposite side of the shelly which^ being held 
with the hole downwards, is easily emptied of its 
contents, by blowing pretty strongly through the 
;tube: if no more convenient instrument is at 
,hand, a straw will make a very serviceable blow- 
pipe. Birds' nests should not be neglected ; they 
possess a high degree of interest: the collector 
should, therefore, take accurate descriptions of 
the materials, form, and size, of every kind of 
nest he finds, always being extremely cautious to 
ascertain the species to which each respectively 
belongs:. he should also make careful drawings 
of every variety, and even collect such of the 
smaller nests as possess any peculiarity in point 
of material, structure, or mode of suspension. 



prr' 



REPTILES AND FISH. 243 

Burnt alum will be found very useful in cleaning 
the fingers whilst skinning birds and animals^ 
and also applied to those which have a good deal 
of fatty matter adhering to them. 
Be tflesand These are best preserved in spirits, 
each specimen being previously wrap- 
ped in a linen cloth; but when too large to 
be so treated, serpents and fish may be care- 
fully skinned, with the least possible injury to 
the scales or any of the external organs, and 
with especial caution not to destroy the' form of 
the skin, which may be preserved by stuffing it 
tightly with cotton or tow, or by filling it with 
sawdust, and the skins dried, with the head, feet, 
and fins on. Instead of being skinned whole, 
fish may be divided into two nearly equal por- 
tions, by an incision passing longitudinally 
through the vertex of the head, the back and 
belly, but on one side of the dorsal, caudal, anal, 
and ventral fins, so as to leave one-half of the 
animal with the gills and all the organs of motion 
perfect. Their fiesh may then be easily removed 



244 TORTOISES, ETC. 

from this portion, and replaced by tow, whicb 
will preserve the form of the body. When well 
dried, this portion is to be carefully packed. 
On the whole, this method is preferable to all 
others ; and fish thus preserved, when provided 
with proper artificial eyes, and mounted on flat 
boards, afibrd excellent specimens. The upper 
and lower shells of the tortoise tribe should be 
separated by dividing the ligamentous or bony 
portion which unites them on each side, between 
the foref and hind legs; after which the fleshy 
parts may easily be removed, the head, legs, and 
integuments of the body being carefully pre- 
served. As to the lizards and crocodiles, they 
may be skinned in the usual manner, care being 
taken not to injure the tails of the former, which 
are very brittle, or, when not too large, they may 
be preserved in spirits, which is still better. 

The form and colour of the eyes in all the 
vertebrata, of whatever class, should be carefully 
observed and noted down the moment they are 
taken. 



insects; 245 

f Insects may be found almost every- 

Inseots. 

where; look especially for all beetles 

under stones, under bark of decayed trees, on the 
inside of ditto, on felled ditto, on trunks of ditto 
(especially those that have the sap running from 
them), by beating the boughs into a net or sheet, 
smoking under and burning inside hollow trees, on 
long grass or herbage, on flowers, under rubbish 
(especially on the slopes of mountains, and in 
marshy places), under sea-weed at the sea-side, and 
indeed they are to be found almost everywhere in 
warm climates, especially in open places in woods, 
and on the slopes of hills, and are generally most 
abundant in a light sandy soil, and in and after 
the rainy seasons : they may be collected either 
by picking with the hands, or by sweeping and 
brushing with a net, according to the situation : 
the larger ones may either be put separately into 
'' pill or other boxes, or else immersed at once into 
a bottle of clear spirit, when they almost immedi- 
ately die; and may either remain in the spirit, 
and be sent in this way to England (if possible 



246 iNSBCTS; 

changing the spirit just before sending)^ or else 
the same or following day taken out and soaked 
for about a quarter of ah hour in warm water^ 
and then laid on blotting-paper a few hours to 
dry : after that, either pin and stick in tight in a 
well-made box, lined with cork or some soft 
wood, or else (if in a dry country) lay careftdly 
in rows, in a box, on cotton wool: numbers may 
be packed this way in layers, between soft paper, 
and generally reach England in beautiftd condi- 
tion. The small beetles may also be collected 
and sent in the same way, and, if immersed in 
spirit, put in a separate bottle from the large 
ones ; or else when captured put into a phial with 
some blotting-paper, and killed on reaching home, 
by immersing it in hot or boiling water for a 
minute or two, or placing it in the heat of the 
sun for a short time: they can then either be 
pinned or else packed in soft paper in rows and 
layers, as the others, and should not be despised 
on account of their small size, as they are fre* 
quently more valuable than the liarger ones. 



BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS. 247 

Look especially in and near ants* nests in sultry 
weather, and under bark of trees where ants 
occur, or under stones, and at the roots of grass, 
for small beetles. 

Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera) must be col- 
lected with great care, so that the beautiful scales 
on the wings are not rubbed offer injured, as they 
then become generally worthless: they may be 
bred from caterpillars found on various trees and 
plants (which is an excellent plan, as they are 
then very perfect), or else caught by the aid of a 
gauze net: a ring net about 1^ foot in diameter 
and 2 feet deep, will do very well, attached to a 
stick 3 to 6 feet long. Woods and wild places 
are generally the best to find them in ; it is 
necessary to pin them as you take them, which 
must be done with great care, so that the 
upper parts of the \iings are not rubbed ; there- 
fore the collector must be provided with a good 
large box to stick them in. Some of the 
large and big-bodied moths will probably not 
die unless a little oxalic or iiitric acid is applied 



248 BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS. 

to them^ which may be done by dipping a long 
pin or needle into it^ and running it down the 
body of the insect two or three times^ commenc- 
ing under the mouth; they can then either be 
pinned tight in boxes^ or else laid between dry 
cotton and paper^ the same as the beetles; or 
•when collected, instead of being pinned, put 
into three-cornered pieces of paper with the 
wings folded up, which is a very good plan when 
there is no convenience for carrying boxes. Other 
sorts of insects may be caught and killed the 
same way, and sent over aS before directed, be- 
tween layers of cotton and paper. No other 
insects but beetles should be put into spirits; 
and not these when the colours are beautiful, 
delicate, and of a chalky texture : the bottle be- 
fore sending should be full of insects, or else 
filled up with cotton, so that they cannot shake 
about. 

Great care must be taken with all insects that 
they do not get broken, especially the horns 
(antennse) and legs of beetles, and the antenne 



ARACHNIDA. 249 

and wings of the butterflies and motlas, for then 
their value is greatly diminished. 

Beetles should always be pinned through the 
right elytrum, or wing case, so that the pin may 
come out between the first and second pair of 
legs ; but all other insects may be pierced ver- 
tically through the thorax. Great care must 
also be taken that the boxes containing the in- 
sects be left in a dry situation, and the sooner 
they are transmitted to England the better, pre- 
viously applying to the inside of the boxes a 
small quantity of powdered arsenic or camphor, 
to prevent the attacks of small insects, 

Arachnida, — Spiders, Scorpions, and Acari are 
best preserved in spirits, as well as the Myria- 
poda, including the Juli, Scolppendrae, and other 
individuals of the order ; but they may be pierced 
through the thorax (the intestines being carefully 
removed and replaced by cotton), and pinned 
tight in boxes, as the insects. 
, Crustacea. — The marine species may be killed 



250 SPONGES AKD CORALLINES. 

by being immersed in cold fresh water, and they* 
should be left in it for several hours, to free 
them from the adhering salt, which, if not Well 
washed out, renders them liable to attract mois- 
ture from the atmosphere and injures the speci- 
mens. When well washed, separate the upper 
shells, and remove as much of the fleshy parts as 
possible ; then carefully dry and pack them. The 
smaller species may be pierced with pins, like 
insects, if the consequent bulk of the packages^ 
be not an objection. Entire Crustacea may be 
preserved in strong spirits or brine. 

Sponges and Corallines. — Search the line of 
sea-weed at high-water mark, and the more the 
latter are covered with small corals and other 
parasites the better. Never Wash them in fresh 
water, but dry them as they are found. Never 
wash or squeeze sponges ; the fuller they are of 
gelatinous or fleshy matter the better. Use un- 
washed small Fuci as packing, dried, but not to' 
crispness : the boxes should be divided into two 



STAR FISH. 251 

Or three compartments. Corals should never be 
washed or bleached, but sent as they come from 
the sea. 

Star-Fish and Echini. — These may be either 
dried or bottled in the saline fluid. If large, 
plunge them for two or three minutes into boiling 
water before drying; if small, one minute will 
be enough. Annelides, Actinia, and other fleshy 
things, may be bottled with a saturated solution 
of bay salt, with two grains- corrosive sublimate 
to each quart. Always keep up the strength of 
the saline solution bv the addition of salt as 
needed. 

Land and Fresh-water SheBs. — Land shells are 
found in many places, such as under stones, in 
clefts of rocks, on the sides of hills and moun- 
tains, under decayed wood and trees,.on the trunks, 
roots and leaves of trees and bushes, in decayed 
vegetable matter, dried leaves and moist, on small 
plants ; in fact, almost every situation produces 
them except open and cultivated places : where 
dead specimens are founds living ones cannot be 



252 SHELLS. 

far off. When collected^ bring them home and 
put them in a pail, or some other large vessel, 
and pour a quantity of cold water over them; 
then cover up the vessel for two or three hours, 
which will cause the animaU to come out a little 
(it is necessary to cover them up, or else they 
will crawl away) : when they are a little out, 
draw off the water, and pour a quantity of 
boiling water on them, so as to cover them well : 
let them remain a few minutes to cool a little ; 
then take out the animals with a large pin or 
needle, as you would a periwinkle : when they 
are all done, take a soft brush and wash off 
gently all the dirt and filth from them, and place 
them in anothrr vessel of fresh water until all 
are *clean; then shake out well the water that 
' is in them, and place them out to dry, with 
their mouths downwards, but not in the sun: 
when dry, if they are small, pack them away in 
small boxes, writing on the cover the locality 
and situation in which found. Should the shells 
be rather large, then wrap each shell in a paper 



fmmmmmmmi^mm^mmmmmm^m 



SHELLS. 253 

by itself, and pack them away in a larger box, 
with their localities, etc., with care ; but never 
put by a box that is not quite full without 
adding sufficient cotton or other soft substance 
to fill it, for such tender subjects should not have 
play during their transit. In rivers, lakes, 
ponds, and small streams, will be found many 
species of shells which — although not hand- 
some — are very interesting; none, therefore, 
should be left behind, as it mtiy be a cause of 
regret hereafter. Some of the shells which will 
be found in the above-mentioned places are of 
the same form as the land shells ; others are like 
our fresh-water mussel or cockle: they are 
mostly found in the mud, sometimes in deep 
water : dead ones are sure to be found on the 
banks of lakes and rivers ; and if you cannot 
procure living ones, show the natives the dead 
specimens, and offer them money to get a 
quantity of living ones. The rivers and pieces 
of water abound with shells: be diligent in 
seeking them^ and your labours will be most 



254 FRESHWATER SHELLS. 

amply repaid. Having collected the fresh-water 
shells^ place them in a vessel^ and pour a large 
quantity of boiling water on them ; they do not 
require to be first put into cold water^ as the land 
shells do : as soon as the water is a little cool^ 
pour it off, take out the animals as before men- 
tioned, wash the shells, etc., etc.; but as the 
bivalve or fresh-water mussel wiU open wide as 
soon as the animal is out, it must be tied close 
before being put out to dry ; if not the hinge 
will break, and make the shell valueless. Some 
of the fresh-water shells that are like the snails 
have a mouth-piece, or operculum, which must be 
taken care of: the mouth-pieces should be kept 
in separate packages, and packed with the species 
of shell to which they belong, as they are of 
great service in determining the species. Some 
of the land shells have also a mouth-piece, which 
should be packed in the same manner. When 
the bivalve shells are tied up and dry, wrap each 
of them in a piece of soft paper, pack them in small 
boxes, and remember localities, habitats, etc., etc. 



MARINE SHELLS. 255 

Marine Shells. — The best time to collect shells 
on the sea-shore is at the new and full moon, 
for then the tides make greatest ebb: the col' 
lector should be on the spot two hours before 
low water, with an assistant to help in turning 
over the large stones, should there be any, under 
which will be found many species of cowries, buc- 
cinums, tritons, mitres, cones, and several species 
.of bivalve shells, also many kinds adhering to the 
> stones, which must be taken off with a knife 
in a careful manner : several species bore into the 
stone itself, which must be broken with hammers 
to get out the shells, or, if the stone be soft, cut 
,it carefully with a hatchet, on doing which many 
more species will be found : care must be taken 
,to avoid breaking the shells : be always provided 
with a light basket and a small box in it, in 
which to put the smaller and more, delicate speci- 
mens. The stones when turned over must be 
well inspected, as many wiU be found covered 
with marine matter, which makes them appeax 
like the stone itself : collect all, and do not despise 



256 CHITONS. 

them on account of their unmeaning appearance^ 
for amongst them may be new genera and other 
very rare shells. Many stones at the very lowest 
ebb will have most shells on them^ therefore the 
collector must not mind getting a little wet. 
Amongst other sorts will be found chitons^ which 
must be taken off in the same manner as the 
limpet and other adhering univalves : care must 
be taken, when at home, to separate them from 
the other shells ; put them into a pail of fresh 
water, and let them remain there from twelve to 
twenty-four hours, by which time the salt on the 
fleshy substance that surrounds them will be well 
soaked out ; then cut out the animal, and wash 
the shells well, inside and out, from all filth, and 
throw them into another vessel of fresh water, 
where let them remain till the whole are cleaned; 
then place them on a narrow strip of board 
and bind them down tightly, put them in a shady 
place to dry, and in three or four days they will 
be fit to pack. 
Among the rocks on the sea*shorej in the cre^ 



PATELLAS) ETC. 257 

vices and on them, will be found many species of 
patellas, chitons, murices, etc. Make a careful 
survey of every rock and stone ; they will amply 
repay the trouble. All sheltered coves or little 
bays are the best places in which to find shells : 
examine these places in preference to others, 
particularly those in more exposed situations. 
The first thing to observe when in a new locality 
is to go along the sands at high-water mark, for 
many good shells are thrown up by the sea, par- 
ticularly light bivalves ; any time of the tide will 
do. Never miss going after a gale of wind, for 
then many valuable deep-water shells will be 
found which are not seen at other times. In 
sheltered bays and places just at the very lowest 
water-mark will be found, in the sand and mud, 
various species of bivalve shells, just beneath the 
surface, and generally in great abundance: do 
not neglect to collect all and every species, and 
in plenty. 

In collecting shells, whether terrestrial or aqua- 
tic, the collector must always give the preference 

s 



258 DREDGING. 

to live shells — ^that is^ such as are still inhabited 
by the living animal — but if they cannot be ob- 
tained, dead shells are better than none^ though^ 
for the most part^ they are worn and faded. The 
more delicate species must be packed in cotton 
or other soft substance, or, in a default of such, a 
ane sawdust. Shells contaming their animals, as 
well as the naked moUusca^ must be preserved in 
spirits or brine. 

It is necessary to have a rope for 

Predging. 

the dredge from 2^ to 3 inches (60 

fathoms long); a fine sieve, a bucket and a 

ladle ; a boat with a small anchor and cable (not 

less than 30 fathoms), to moor her in the situation 

where you are going to dredge; a good stout 

canoe to convey the dredge away from the boat 

as far as the rope will allow. The dredge to lie 

in the bow of the canoe, mouth upwards, handle 

inwards : when it is conveyed as far as the rope 

will allow, those in the canoe are to heave — that 

is, turn the dredge over gently into the water, 

and let it be from five to six minutes^ until it ia 



DREDGING. 359 

fairly at the bottom; then haul it on board 
the boat : should any obstruction — such as a 
rock^ etc., — ^prevent its being brought home, place 
the canoe under the rope and pull her along until 
the place of obstruction is arrived at ; then bring 
up the dredge, either straight or by taking it a little 
way back, and let those in the boat haul dredge 
and canoe towards them until clear of the ob- 
stacle : the dredge is to be let down again, and 
hauled in as before. When the dredge is brought 
alongside the boat, lift it in^ and take out all the 
mud and sand ; half fill the sieve with this, and 
pour a bucket of water gently on it, the party 
holding the sieve to shake, it gently until all the 
mud and fine sand has passed through : take out 
all the larger shells as soon as possible, to pre- 
vent their breaking the more delicate ones, and 
put them into your basket, and the smaller ones 
into boxes. Should there be many small shells 
in the sieve, which would take much time picking 
out, it would be best to throw the sand from the 
sieve into a basket, and take it home^ where it 



260 SIZE OF DREDGE. 

can be inspected more minutely^ after having 
dried it in the sun on paper. The nearer the 
collector gets to a reef of rocks in sheltered 
places^ the better for shells^ as they will lie there 
for protection ; but be careful to throw the dredge 
clear of the rocks, as it will save a deal of trouble. 
The dredge can be made 3 feet 6 inches long 
and 1 foot wide : the outer edge to be turned 
outwards about the angle of 30®, and beaten 
down rather fine: the lower part of the bar 
should not be less than half-an-inch thick^ with 
holes punched in it from one end to the other, an 
inch and a-half apart, to lash the bag to : the bag 
can be fashioned according to the dredge, and 
made of double bread-bags. 
General Every specimen, dry or in spirit, 

™" should have a niunber attached to it, 

corresponding to one in the collector's note-book, 
in which he must enter his memoranda con- 
cerning it ; as for instance : 

The country where found, Habits, 

The season when. Habitat, 

Local name. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 261 

The collector should be furnished with kniveSf 
scissors^ scalpels^ pliers^ nets^ a large assortment 
of pins of various sizes^ needles^ a hammer^ small 
hatchet^ packing-cases (large and small^ including 
cork boxes for lepidoptera and other insects, and 
a great number of pill-boxes in nests), cotton and 
paper, and also with a folding-net, hoop-net, 
water-net, forceps, digger, gla^s phials, etc., for 
collecting insects; he must also have a good 
supply of prussic acid and arsenical soap« The 
composition and mode of making the latter is as 
follows : 

Camphor • • • • 

Arsenic, in powder 

White soap .... 

Salts of tartar, or subcarbonate 
of potash .... 

Lime, in powder . 

Melt the soap completely with heat in a small 

quantity of water, and add the potash and lime ; 

then remove it from the fire and stir in the 

arsenic; next add the camphor, previously 



5 oz. 


2 lbs. 


2 lbs. 


12 oz. 


4 oz. 



262 ARSENICAL SOAP. 

rubbed to powder, with a little spirit of wine, 
and mix the whole thoroughly: it should now 
have the consistence of paste. Preserve it in care- 
fally-closed glazed vessels, labelled " Poison.*' 

To use it, mix the quantity required with cold 
water to the consistence of tolerably clear soup, 
and apply it with a brush to the inside of the 
skins. 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE FOREST AND THE MOUNTAIN. 



Fleasmg BeooUeotiona— The Primeral Forest— The FasoinatioiiB 
of a Hunter's life— A Forest Banger's Qnalifioations— Fovest 
Scenery— Woodland Streamsr— Forest Creatures— The Forest 
daring the Different Periods of the Day and Night— 
The Voices of the Woods— The Ever-changing Face of 
Nature — ^Instinct of Animals — ^Variety of Character — ^The 
Language of Animals — ** Breathings of Nature" — Weird 
Music— A Hunter's LuUaby — Mountain Scenery— Mountain 
Life— The Mountaineer— The Highest Altitudes. 



The forest! How many pleasing recollections 
of heart-stirring events are associated wid. that 
name ; how many a glorious day*s sport does it 
recall to mind ; how many a dear friend does it 
bring before me with whom I have bearded the 
tiger in his lair^ tracked the mighty elephant to his 
haunt in its inmost recesses, and there despoiled 
him of his trophies^. Many a hand I then 



264 THB PRIMEVAL FOREST. 

dasped has become cold, many a voice I loved 
to listen to is hushed for ever, but the forest, the 
home we rangers all loved so well^ is still un- 
changed, and my heart yearns to return to those 
well-remembered scenes which I shall now attempt 
to portray. 

Th PrimevBi ^^^o who havc uevcr explored a 
ForeBt. primeval forest can have but a very 
faint conception of the mysterious effect that 
absence of light and intense depth of gloom 
have upon the human mind. The unbroken 
silence and utter stillness that everywhere per- 
vades its leafy arches, creates a strange feeling of 
awe and loneliness that depresses the spirits and 
appals the heart of those who are imaccustomed 
to wander in its solitudes ; and even the stoutest 

; heart feels overpowered with a strange sensation 
he can neither accoxmt for nor explain the first 

' time he enters, for the voice of the man resoimds 
with a strange and startling echo> and even the 
very hoxmd whines with fear, and couches close 
to his master's side, afraid of being left alone. 



•.^.^ 



CHARMS OF A HUNTER'S LIFE. 265 

Solitude is too insufficient a term 
tiona of a to convey an idea oi the intensely 

Hnnter'sXife. 

overpowering sensation of desolation 
and loneliness that pervades these regions ; yet, 
to the hunter, who is accustomed to sojourn in 
their deepest recesses, the wilderness is a home 
which he would not exchange for any other i and 
as he roams through its boundless expanse of 
vendure, with no other companions but the silent 
trackers and his dogs,, and no guide but a 
pocket-compass and certain jungle signs not to 
be understood by the dwellers in cities, he 
imbibes certain feelings that cannot be entered 
into save by those who have themselves ex- 
perienced the charms and fascinations of ^^ forest 
life,*' and enjoyed its pure and heartfelt plea- 
sures. To him it possesses a pecidiar spell, not 
to be found elsewhere ; and, far away from the 
haunts of man, he gives no care to the turmoil 
and bustle of the busy world, but loves to study 
nature in her grandest form, and silent xmsuUied 



366 NECESSARY QUALIFICATIONS 

beauty^ whilst bis heart glows with thoughts that 
bear him untiring company. 

There is a peculiarly exhilarating delight^ pass- 
ing all description^ in the wild excitement of this 
life, which dispels all anxiety, and strengthens 
the mental and physical energies for the ever- 
changing scene, delights the eye, and gives plea« 
sure to the intellect , whilst, at the same time, 
the constant excitement arising firom the varied 
incidents of such a state of existence invigorates 
the mind and stimulates the powers of thought 
and observation. 

The body, sustained in continued ex- 

A Forest Ban- 

5®^* Quali- ertion by constant exercise, enables the 

ncations. ^ 

hunter to maintain his course for days 
together through the pathless woods, with that 
dogged stubbornness and inflexibility which is 
necessary to ensure success in the pursuit of the 
game he seeks. He moves noiselessly along, 
without a care as to what he may encounter, for 
he has implicit confidence in the power of his 



FOR A FOREST RANGER. 267 

trusty rifle ; and his vigilant eye, piercing the 
shadowy depths of the jungle, leaves no hollow 
unsearched, for he and his followers are depen- 
dent for their subsistence on their exertions in 
the chase. 

Nothing is so conducive to the keen develop- 
ment of the senses as the constant exertion of 
the different faculties during a sojourn in the 
jungle , quickness of eye (an indispensable qua- 
lity in a hunter) and unceasing watchfulness are 
there attained ; habits of observation are engen- 
dered, for anything out of the conmion imme- 
diately attracts attention, and the ear is habituated 
to catch the slightest sound. 

The himter should have a thorough knowledge 
of the habits of the wild gmiTnals he seeks, bear- 
ing in mind how suspicious they are, and how 
quickly their attention is attracted by unusual 
noises, strange traces in the jungle, or even the 
taint in the air which the presence of man al- 
ways leaves behind. The ranger of the forest 
exneriences a thorough feeling of independence 



263 FOREST SCENERY. 

and a fireedom from restraint in these wilds^ that 
contrasts most favourably with the diaagrhnents 
of artificial existence ; and few of those who are 
fitted to enjoy it, ever quit these scenes to return 
to civilised life without deep feelings of regret 
that their unalloyed pleasures are at an end ; and 
in after life, the murmuring of waters, and the 
sighings of the wind through the trees, will re- 
call to mind moments of intense interest, and they 
will ever feel at heart that there is no music so 
sweet as the wild voices of the woods. 
_ ^ All forests are gloomy, but they 

^^'^^^ have their comparative degrees of 
shade, and present a great diversity of appear- 
ance. The tall feathery bamboo contrasts most 
delightfully with the stately teak, ebony black- 
wood, and other gigantic trees of the primeval 
forest, where the air, being confined, is generally 
close and sufibcating. The surface of the ground 
is everywhere thickly strewn with decayed leaves 
or dead branches, and tmderneath the trees may 
be seen the green of young seedlings which 



FLOWERS AND GRASSES. 269 

spring up by thousands during the rains, but for 
the most part pine and die, being deprived of 
light and heat. 

In some places the forest becomes more open, 
dense woods alternating with beautiful verdant 
glades, and their limits are so well defined, that 
the scene much resembles the ornamental planta- 
tions of an English park ; indeed, so much does 
this similitude strike the Anglo-Saxon stranger, 
the first time it meets his eye, that he looks 
around the verdant lawns, shrubberies of ever- 
green, stately avenues, and embowering groves, 
ftdly expecting to see some ancestral manorial 
mansion, or gray embattled pile, to diversify the 
landscape, so strongly does it remind him of the 
home he has left— perhaps for ever. 

Every turn in the forest reveals some change. 
In some places fern flowers and grasses creep fan- 
tastically tangled on the sides of darkly frowning 
crags, and lichen-covered precipices raise their 
heads above the wave-like looking sea of forest, 
and present a scene with that depth of colouring 



270 WOODLAND STREAMS. 

and exquisitely rich tints that Salvator Bosa 
loved to paint. 

Woodland Clear pellucid streams and rivulets 

are often met. with in the densest 
forests; and during the dry season^ the hunter 
cannot do better than follow their course, as all 
kinds of game abound in their immediate neigh- 
bourhood. 

Their banks are often carpeted . with mosses 
and lichens of endless variety of tints, whilst 
patches of gorgeous flowers are seen amongst 
the luxuriant herbage, adding their rich colours, 
as if to diversify the sombre appearance the 
forest usually wears. In some places they run 
through open glades; in others they are com- 
pletely arched over with dense foliage, forming 
an impervious shade over head, the trees on both 
sides being laced and bound together with aa 
infinity of wild vines and gigantic creepers, which 
hang in festoons, or lie twisted in snake-like coils 
upon the ground. 

Gushing through the arches of the forest, the 



WOODLAND STREAMS. 271 

woodland stream dashes along through scenes of 
ever-varying loveliness and beauty, with a voice 
of impetuous freedom and gladness : now, with a 
pleasant murmur, it rattles over a bed of pebbles ; 
now, lost to the eye, it glides stealthily through a 
shady hollow; now it sweeps past the base of 
huge masses of syenite cliff; dashes over boulders 
of rock, or creeps silendy among moss-covered 
stones; now, divided by dark, boldly jutting 
rocks, it is scattered into a score of bubbling 
rills i now, again imited in one broad expanse, a 
rolling mass of foam, it goes tumbling headlong 
over a rocky precipice into a boiling abyss below, 
mingling aU its waters in a foaming pool. Joined 
in its course by a thousand springs and tribu- 
tary streams, at last it becomes a broad and 
rapid river, gliding smoothly along, hushed 
in peace, reflecting the passing cloud, and 
scarcely ruffled by the freshening breeze ; then 
man builds his habitation by its banks, and 
forest creatures drink of its waters in fear and 
trembling. 



272 FOREST CREATURES^ 

_ ^ Each period of the day has its ac* 

'"^^ customed visitants, every hour has its 
** certain signs," that can be read and understood 
by those only to whom jimgle voices are familiar, 
and who, from long habit and experience, have 
been enabled to observe and mark the systematic 
order of Nature's handiwork. 
Early Mom- ^^ tropical climates the interval be- 
FOT^t. ^ tween the first glimmering of dawn and 
daylight, is very short, and on entering the forest 
at this hour, jimgle-cocks (whose pliunage gleams 
like gold as they run by followed by their dusky 
seraglio) may be heard croWing merrily on every 
side, whilst great hooded-owls, like drowsy re- 
vellers after their night's carouse, sail hooting, 
leisurely flapping their wings as they return to 
their haunts in some hollow tree. As the light 
increases, the notes of the earliest of the feathered 
songsters are heard, and troops of monkeys are 
seen making their way to some pool or stream for 
their morning draught, but who fly skipping from 
branch to branch, chattering and showing thei^ 



DAYBREAK IN THE FOBESt. 273 

teeth as soon as they discover our presence. Now 
and again, the dun sides of deer flash for an in-^ 
stant before us, as they hoiind across the open vistas 
of the forest, and disappear in the densest cover. 

Birds of gaudy pliunage dart amid the branches, 
gay butterflies hover about, insects of metallic 
hue glitter on the leaves, and all Nature seems 
glad in this highly-favoured spot. 

Toucans and gigantic hom-bills, with their 
awkward flight, pass from tree to tree in search 
of the reptiles and small animals on which they 
feed; and long lines of flamingoes, with their mag<- 
nificent rose-coloured plumage, pelicans, herons, 
storks, and ibis, may be seen in long lines wend- 
ing their way towards their feeding grounds. 

In certain seasons, long before sunrise, elk are 
heard bellowing, and their loud cries of defiance 
resounding from every side of the forest, might, 
by unaccustomed ears, be mistaken for the roaring 
of much more dangerous animals, so hoarse and 
hollow do they sound. 

All nocturnal animals return to their haunts iu 



274 / BEAUTIES OP MOBN. 

the deep jungle on the first appearance of dawn, 
when the jungle-cock sounds the ^' reveille." 
Bison and deer retire slowly from the open glades 
where they have pastured during the night, and 
^eek the shade of the thick cover. 

At this early hour there is generally a cool 
breeze, and the morning air is fresh and bracing; 
but very shortly the whole of the eastern horizon 
glows witTi ruddy lustre, and the sun bursts forth 
in a blaze of living light, and seems to travel on 
his way in the heavens with much more rapidity 
than in northern climes. This is the moment for 
the lover of the beautiful to see the forest, for 
the dewdrops on the leaves and ground sparkle 
like brilliants, and at no other time are the varied 
colours of the verdure so vivid. The lights and 
shades show to the best advantage, and a pecu- 
Uarly harmonious charm reigns over the whole 
face of Nature, which must strike upon the heart 
even of the most apathetic spirit, and make hiTn 
feel, with the great poet, that 

" There ia a pleasure in the pathless woods." 



NOON IN THE FOREST. 2^S 

Noon in the During the intense heat of the day, 
whilst the sun is still high above the 
meridian, all animated nature seems to yield to 
his overpowering influence. A strange stillness, a 
pr9found silence, reigns throughout the forest, 
which in early morning seemed to teem with life 
and motion. Every living creature disappears 
into the deepest shade of the woods, in order to 
escape from the exhausting heat and oppressive 
glare; except, perhaps, the eagle, hawk, and 
falcon, who are seen hovering overhead in circles, 
like specks in the cloudless sky, or skimming, 
with strange wild cries, over the tops of the 
jungle in search of their prey, and the green 
enamelled dragon-flies that still flit over the 
water from leaf to leaf. Then the sturdy hunter, 
overcome with lassitude, suspends his toil, and 
seeks the grateftd shade of some gigantic forest- 
tree or overhanging rock, where he reposes until 
the mid-day heat is passed, whilst his dog, also 
sharing in the universal languor which seems at 
that hour to oppress the whole face of nature^ 

T 2 



276 BETIVAL OF LIFE. 

lies panting upon the ground^ with his legs ex- 
tended to the utmost^ and his tongue hanging far 
out of his mouth. 

The weary hours roU on, and Nature revives : 
the woods again resound with the melody of the 
voice of birds ; butterflies, of varied hue, flutter 
across the open glades ; bees flit from flower to 
flower; and lustrous beetles, exhibiting metallic 
hues of green and blue, that rival the deepest 
shades of the emerald and the sapphire, hover 
round in circles, making a peculiar booming 
noise from the flutter of their wings. Myriads of 
insects keep up a perpetual hum in the soHtudes 
of the jungle, and other gentle sounds murmur 
softly from every side, like spirits in the air, and 
produce an efiect singularly strange, soothing^ 
and dreamy. At times, above this jungle melody, 
may be distinguished the distant cry of the pea- 
cock, the shrill wild note of jungle-fowl, the call 
of the coppersmith, the tapping of the wood- 
pecker against some hollow tree, the chattering 
of a troop of monkeys as they pass in the dis- 



f^fmffmmsmmmi'^'^^ 



EVENING IN THE FOREST. 277 

tance^ bounding from bough to bough ; the pecu- 
liarly soft and melancholy note of the turtle-doves, 
as they flutter in pairs from tree to tree ; or the 
fihrill screams of flights of paroquets, whose bril- 
liant plumage shines with exquisite lustre in the 
light of the sun, as they dash close past, uncon- 
scious of danger in their forest home, 
j,^ . . As the day declines, birds of all 

thX^" kinds are seen returning homeward 
from their distant feeding-grounds ; pelicans rise 
heavily on their unwieldy wings from the 
marshes, and wend their way to their nests on 
the highest trees in some secluded spot. Flying- 
foxes leave the shady grove where they have hung 
suspended during the heat of the day, and are 
seen in numbers darkening the sky as they roam 
through the twilight; whilst multitudes of bats 
flit about in all directions in search of the insects 
on which they feed* 

As the sun sets, insects of all kinds issue from 
their retreats, and mosquitoes are constantly heard 
buzzing about, increasing in the audacity of their 



278 THE SILENT FOREST. 

attacks as the night wears on. The shrill voice! 
of innumerable crickets, the croaking of frogs, and 
the continual hum of other insects, keep up a 
perpetual serenade long after darkness has co? 
rered the earth. 

The tuneful songsters ceased their warbling, 
>nd the woods no longer resounded with the 
sharp strokes of the woodpecker ; but the night- 
hawk was on the wing, and darted swiftly to and 
fro after the moths, which at that hour flit about 
in great numbers. The air becomes redolent 
with the fragrance of numberless flowering shrubs, 
which seem to emit a double perfume towardgi* 
the close of day. The evening deepens into 
twilight, the twilight darkens into night, and the. 
stars with their mild radiance seem as if they 
. strove to eclipse the lingering rays of sunset,. 
At length the mighty forest becomes silent, and. 
no sound reaches our ears save the occasional) 
chirping of a cricket, the dismal hooting of the 
horned howl, the howling of troops of jackals, or 
the melancholy booming of the great hill-monkey. , 



NIGHT IN THE FOREST. Hl^ 

As the night wears on, the tall tree^s can hardly 
be distinguished one behind another, as they 
loom darker and darker against an indefinable 
background. 

Hundreds of flying-foxes glide silently through 
the night air, like evil spirits of darkness ; and 
the harsh cry of alarm of the plover, " Did he do 
it, did he do it?'* is heard long after the rest of 
the feathered race are at rest. . 
N* ht in Then the voices of night come upon 

our ears. Elephants are heard trumr 
petting as they crash through the underwood, 
and at intervals sundry smothered roars and 
deep hoarse grumblings re-echo amongst the 
hollow arches of the forest, and teU us that its 
fiercest denizens have risen from their lairs in 
its innermost recesses, and are prowling about 
in search of prey. 

It is not the mere killing which 
Forest Lore. 

affords the .hunter pleasure, as he, 

ranges the forest in the pursuit of game, for the: 

ever-changing s]|^lvan realm is beauljifrd under 



280 pOREST LOBE. 

every aspect. The varied hues and forms of the 
di£ferent trees^ each possessing its own distinctive 
character^ are so beautifully blended by Nature 
as to set at naught all the imitations of Art. 
Here a crowd of interesting objects may be 
embraced at a glance, on every side forming 
vignettes such as Turner loved to delineate. 
Yes, my gentle reader, the forest has indescribable 
charms which grow round the heart, but he must 
live long with Nature who would understand her 
mysterious signs, hidden ways, and ever-changing 
fece, or interpret the wild voices of the woods— 
a language which none save the long-initiated 
can read* 
The Erer- The hunter, after a long sojourn in 

ohang^g Faoe 

of Nature, these solitudes, gets accustomed to 
observe the minutest change; nothing escapes 
his keen observation, and by degrees, with close 
attention, he begins to trace the cause by the 
effect, and to study the regular, harmonious, and 
systematic laws of Nature. Then he never suffers 
from lassitude, gets disheartened, or is cast dowik' 



nature's changes. 281 

when alone in the forest^ £dt he has within 
himself an exhaustible source «f occupation which 
keeps his mind active^ his thoughts engaged^ and 
his faculties in constant exercise. To^him every 
object has its attraction and importance^ either 
elucidating some principle or affording instruction; 
and the more he learns the more his curiosity is 
stimulated, rather than weaned, until after a time 
he becomes almost independent of external cir- 
cumstances, and loses aE craving after the 
artificial excitement of the /outer world. He 
finds ^'that there is»fiociety where none intrudes,*' 
or, as the great master-mind Shakspere says ; 

" Tonnes in trees^-books in the nmning brooks^ 
Sennons in stonee^Hind good in eveiything." 

Infltinot of Besides the beauties of Nature that 
meet the hunter at every step, the 
observation of the instincts, character, and habits 
of different animals is one of the most entertaining 
occupations. In the place of improvable reason 
given to man, all animals are endowed with 
fiiculties which impel them to perform certain 



282 INSTINCT OF ANIMALS. 

actions and guide tibiem in certain operations 
which cannot be ascribed to their own mental 
consciousness, for some of their works show an 
acquaintance with scientific principles which 
man has only discovered by long reflection. 
By watching closely the inhabitants of the forest, 
the hunter will be struck with the different 
sagacious expedients by which they provide 
themselves with food, construct their habitations, 
or defend themselves against their natural 
enemies: and he will find that the capabilities 
of aU animals are proportionate to their wants ; 
thus some have different senses more strongly 
developed than others. Sometimes the different 
ingenious means and artifices animals resort 
to will almost induce the observer to suspect 
that they are endowed with a certain amount 
of reason ; yet, on reflection, he must be convinced 
that this cannot be, as the ant and the bee, which 
are of a very inferior class in the scale of animals; 
possess an instinct more highly developed than 
any other. The various means animals will resort 



J 



INSTINCT OF ANIMALS. 28S 

to for self-preservation are very extraordinary: 
one class will endeavour to crusji their antagonist 
with their ponderous bodies; a second charge, 
making use of their horns ; a third employ their 
paws and teeth, being gifted with immense mus- 
cular strength ; a fourth being protected by their 
hides, roU themselves up in a ball; a fifth inject 
subtle poison from hollow fangs ; a sixth sting ; 
a seventh eject from their bodies a volatile foetid 
liquor offensive in the highest degree, or exhale 
disagreeable and penetrating odours ; an eighth 
outstrip their pursuers by superior swiftness, fly, 
climb out of the way, or creep into the earth ; a 
ninth counterfeit death on the presence of danger ; 
whilst others, again, have such extraordinary 
vitality that dislocated portions grow and become 
new animals. 

Variety of ^® characters of different animals 
' vary extremely : some are naturally of 
a savage and vindictive disposition ; for instance, 
the tiger's thirst for blood is insatiable, whereas 
the lion does not attack his prey except from the 



284 VARIETY OP CHARACTER. 

cravings of hunger; some are consdtutionall/ 
brave^ as the boar, buffido, and bear; whilst 
others, such as the hyena and most of the feline 
class, are cowardly* iSome are pugnacious, ad 
the rhinoceros, jungle-eodk, jand spider; and 
' ' others harmless by nature, and peacefully inclined, 
as the elephant and deer, except when excited by 
jealousy. Some are naturally solitary, only seek- 
ing each other during ^' the season of love," 
which comprises all the rapacious order of beasts or 
birds ; others live in families, as the elephant; or 
in herds, as bison, deer, and antelope. Some 
associate only for. the. purposes. of hunting, as 
wolves, jackals, wild dogs, and vxdtures ; or pre- 
vious to migrating, as 'Swallows, snipe, and wood- 
cock ; whilst others live permanently together, as 
monkeys, parrots, rabbits, crows, pigeons, prairie 
dogs, and the society, bird.*!. In some animals 



* In Central A&ioa, I have oome across the habitations of 
the society birds, which at first sight I imagined to have 
been oonstracted by man ; for they live in hundreds together 
in a kind of mud and thatph-honse, imperyioiu to wet, baying 



LANGUAGE OF ANIMALS^ 285 

memory and attachment to mankind are more 
strongly implanted by Nature than in others, 
more particularly in the dog, horse, and ele- 
phant. 

TheLan^oage ^® ^™*^^ ^7 S^^ ^^^^ "^^^g^* 
of Animala. •..■!_ - ji_ . /•• 

into the nature and character oi ani- 
mals, by their cries under different circumstances 
which express their various desires and emotions, 
as all have certain calls and utter peculiar sounds 
denoting pleasure, sorrow, maternal affection, 
connubial attachment, anger, rage, alarm, and 
fear. In former days there were men who pro- 
fessed to understand the songs of birds; and 
often as I have listened to the merry songsters of 
the wood, or to the exquisitely plaintive melody 
of the turtle-dove as he wooed his bride, I have 
thought that it was quite possible to learn much 
of their language by watching their actions, and 
paying attention to the manifold accents of their 



long streets, with lines of nests on each side at regolar dis- 
tances, from each other. The tree selected is generally the smooth- 
barked aoaoia. 



286 BREATHINGS OF NATURE. 

notes — now low, soft, and long drawn out, now 
shrill, disjointed, and harsh. 

These studies of Nature are the hunter's re- 
creations, and he feels pleasure proportionate as 
he understands them. Her laws are ever the 
same, ever changeless, ever perfect. Truth is 
ever before him, and there are no imperfections 
in the models of his study — for Nature is ever 
young. 
The Breath- ^®* there are mysterious natural 

inffs of Nature, i x 'i.!- • ^-l j 

* phenomena met with m the dense 

forest, for which even the long-initiated hunter 
cannot account. I allude to those indescribable 
but peculiarly soothing and melodious sounds 
that issue from every side, and seem to make the 
very stillness palpable. My mentor, Walter 

M , who, besides being the keenest sportsman 

was also the most skilled in woodcraft, and all 
knowledge appertaining to the forest that India 
ever produced, used to term these nameless 
rounds the "breathings of Nature;'* and often, 
when watching for game in places fitr away from 



WEIRD MUSIC. 287 

the haunts of man, have we listened, hour after 

hour, endeavouring to account for each of the 

various noises as they caught the ear. 

The faint, soothing tones and hum- 
Weird Mosio. 

ming sounds with which the forest is 

resonant at certain times are doubtlessly occa- 
sioned by the countless variety of insects that 
inhabit it; but sometimes when alone, even in 
broad daylight, the hunter wiU find strange 
emotions arise, and feel startled for the moment 
at the almost supernatural tone of the voices of 
the wild woods — ^for the imknown is always fear- 
ful, until habit has familiarised us with its pre- 
sence ; and when alone in those solitudes, man is 
deprived of that false courage that is engendered 
by the presence of his fellow-man. 

Sometimes the hunter will hear resounding 

* 

through these wilds, strange soimds like bursts of 
fiendish laughter, or long, protracted moanings, 
as if some human being was sufiering in extreme 
agony; and by instinct he will cock his rifle and 
peer through the subdued light, and quickly 



288 A hunter's LULtABr. 

flitting shadows, fully expecting to meet more 
than an earthly antagonist ; but after a moment's 
reflection, he will lay down his trusty weapon 
with a smile at his own excitability, knowing 
that the strange sounds he has heard either 
proceeded from some prowling hyena, or were 
caused by the wind sweeping through the giant 
trees and rocky gorges. Again, sometimes, when 
on trail, he will fancy that he hears *' floating 
sounds," like passing wings, and a hum like mur-* 
muring of voices in the air, and will stop and 
listen intently, fearing to move lest he should 
break the spell, when in reality it was only the 
creaking of boughs, bamboos rubbing against 
each other, or the foliage overhead being stirred 
by a gentle breeze. 

A Hnntei^s Many a time in the still night, as he 
^' lays down to rest after the fatigues of 
the day, under some mighty patriarch of the 
forest, he will hear the wind sighing his lullaby 
among the distant hills, slow, sad, and melan- 
choly. I remember in 1855, when crossing a 



devil's music. 289 

lofly range of mountains in Circassia, that I was 
very much surprised, and my people frightened, 
at hearing low musical breathings, like the tones 
of an -Eolian harp, evidently issuing from the 
side of the mountain. My followers called it 
** devil's music,'* and said that it prognosticated 
evil ; but I believe that it was caused by strong 
currents of air passing swiftly over the numerous 
caverns and crevasses, although Humboldt attri- 
butes this natural phenomenon, which he also 
experienced, to parts of the ground being un- 
equally heated. 

Such is the forest-ranger's home, and he who 
has passed any length of time amid similar scenes 
will ever in his heart long to return to them, for 
no music is so sweet in his ears as '^ the voices of 
the wild woods." 

Kousseau, the eloquent French author, in his 
" Confessions," says : " Never did a level country, 
however beautiful it might be, seem beautiftd in 
my eyes. I must have cataracts, rocks, pines. 



290 MOUNTAIN SCENBEY. 

dark forests, and rugged pathways, with steep 
precipices that make one shudder to behold." I 
cannot say that I entirely agree with him, for 
notwithstanding that I have wandered through all 
the wildest scenes of the Himalaya, my heart 
clings to the remembrance of the varied beauties 
of our English landscapes, where fields of waving 
golden com, green meadows, woods, and gentle 
meandering rivers, alternate. There is a certain 
charm in such scenes that has an indescribable 
attraction to every traveller of the Anglo-Saxon 
race. He feels that it pertains of home — of the 
land of his fathers, with which no other spot on 
earth can compare. Yet there cannot be a doubt 
of the influence of mountain scenery upon the 
mind, and there is a spell in its Qontemplation. 
that never palls. Here the wanderer's feet are 
rarely weary, his knapsack never heavy. 
Mo^fin There is something invigorating in 

T 'f 

the pure bracing air of the higher al- 
titudes that appears to revive the spirits after a 



MOUNTAIN LIFE. 291 

lengthened sojourn amongst the dwellers of cities, 
and the change has a beneficial effect upon the 
body as well as upon the mind. Here one ap- 
pears to inhale health at every respiration ; the 
appetite improves, digestion becomes easy, physi- 
cal force and elasticity of limb increases, and 
fallen degeneration changes to firm muscle, whilst 
a sense of exultation thrills through -the whole 
frame ; melancholy gives place to cheerfulness, 
and the mind feels relieved from all depressing 
influence of care and anxiety for the future. A 
life amid civilised society may seem to run 
smoothly, but "there's a skeleton in every house," 
and beneath are ever hidden strange things that 
occasion heart-aches, although they may never 
rise to the surface. 

The wildness of a comparatively savage life is 
free from many of these troubles and disquietudes ; 
and perfect freedom of action, even if it loses 
somewhat of refinement, gains much in liberty 
and the comforts of self-independence. 



v2 



292 LIVING WITH NATURE. 

Mountain life has delights peculiarly its own, 
there is a mysterious charm in these elevated 
regions that is never felt on the plains, and the 
further the wanderer goes from the haunts of 
man, the stronger become those exhilarating sen- 
sations which fill the heart with gladness, and 
nerve the body with energy to put forth its 
strength. He who lives constantly with Nature, 
watching and studying all her changing moods, 
feels that he has a world within himself, that no 
adverse fortune can sweep away. 

It has ever seemed to me that, amidst the moun- 
tains, the pulse of Nature beats stronger and 
more palpably than upon the plains ; here, every- 
thing discovers more life and energy, and speaks 
more emphatically of the infinite power of the 
Euler of the Universe. The stream that mean- 
ders slowly through the plains, dashes impetu- 
ously down its mountain course ; and even man 
(unless education and society changes him) much 
resembles the soil from which he springs. 



THE MOUNTAINEER. 293 

__ __ To a certain extent, the moun- 

The Monn- ' 

®®^* taineeer bears the stamp of Nature 

upon him; for, like the mountain torrent, his 
movements are quick; like the sudden changes 
in the atmosphere in which he dwells, his passions 
are easily roused ; like the oak which shades him, 
he has a sturdy, bold and characteristic manner ; 
like the rock on which he stands, he is true and 
faithful, and makes a firm friend ; and the con- 
stant presence of danger and peril inures him to 
the contemplation of death, and renders him 
fearless and intrepid. 

Mountaineers are conspicuous for their inde- 
pendent manner, manly bearing, and the absence 
of all conventional manner. 

Th Hi best Imagination cannot portray to the 
mind the stupendous grandeur of the 
highest altitudes — ^here the whole face of nature 
bears the stamp of immortaUty— seasons never 
change — unbroken winter ever reigns. Such 
scenery no mortal can contemplate, and still 



294 THE HIGHEST ALTITUDES. 

disbelieve in the existence of God, for the voice 
of Nature is irresistibly powerful, and the mys- 
terious influence that reigns in these regions 
will inculcate a natural religion even in the mind 
of a savage, and impress upon him the conscious- 
ness of the infinite supremacy of an all-ruling 
Power. 



THE END. 



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1= 



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BOOKS PUBLISHED BY CHATTO ^ WINDUS. II 




NEW AND IMPORTANT WORK. 

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will also he issued a splendid Coloured Plate, from an original Painting or Illu- 
mination, of Royal and Noble Personages, atid National Costume, both foreign and 
domestic. The First Part is just ready, 

IN collecting materials for a History of Costume of 
more importance than the little handbook which has 
met with so much favour as an elementary work, I was 
not only made aware of my own deficiencies, but sur- 
prised to find how much more vague are the explana- 
tions, and contradictory the statements, of our best 
authorities, than they appeared to me, when, in the 
plenitude of my ignorance, I rushed upon almost un- 
trodden ground, and felt bewildered b>[ the mass of 
unsifted evidence jmd unhesitating assertion which met 
my eyes at every turn. 

During: the forty years which have elapsed since the 
publication of the first edition of my " History of British 
Costume" ir> the ** Librarjr of Entertaimn^ Know- 
ledge," archaeological investigation has received such 
an impetus by the establishment of metropolitan and 
provincial peripatetic antiquarian societies, that a flood 
of light hs^ been poured upK)n us, by wnich we are 
enabled to re-examine our opinions and discover reasons 
to doubt, if we cannot find facts to authenticate. ^ 

That the former gready prqxmderate is a grievous 
acknowledgment to make after assiduously devoting 
the leisure of half my life to the pursijit of information 
on this, to me, most fascinadng subject. It is some 
consolation, however, to feel that where I cannot in- 
struct, I shall certainly not mislead, and that the reader 
will find, under each head, all that is known to, or 
sugi^ested by, the most com[>etent writers I am ac- 

quamted with, either here or on the Continent 

That this work appears in a glossarial form arises from the desire of many artists, 
who have expressed to me the difficulty they constantlv meet with in their en- 
deavours to ascertain the complete form of a garment, or the exact mode of fastening 
a piece of armour, or buckling of a belt, from their study of a sepulchral effigjy or 
a figure in an illumination, the attitude of the personages represented, or the dispo- 
sition of other portions of their attire, effectually preventing the requisite examination. 
The books supplying any such information are very few, and the best confined to 
armour or ecclesiasticalcostume. The only E^iglish publication of the kind required, 
that I am aware of. is the late Mr. Fairholt's *' Costume in England" (8vo, London, 
1846), the last two hundred pa^es of which contain a glossary, the most valuable 
portion whereof are the quotations from old plays, mediaeval romances, and satirical 
ballads, containing allusions to various articles of attire in fashion at the time of ^ 
their composition. Twenty-eight years have expired since that book appeared, and 
it has been thoiight that a more comprehensive work on the subject than has yet 
issued from the English press, combining the pith of the information of many oostly 
foreign publications, and, in its UlustraUons, keeping in view the special require- 
ment ofthe artist, to which I have alluded, would be, in these days of educational 
progress and critical inquiry, a welcome addition to the library of an English 
genUeman. J. R. PLANCH^. 



74 ^ 75» PICCADILLY, LONDON, W. 



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^ An marvtUimi fsiatr. TkilaltMr. TUt.ff FlttiSlrtii, finl ccitctntd tlit 
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inch aekarm In the stories wriltn- ir Difee kaif a cen>i4ty later. The iaUrrst 

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The earlier portion of the iook nws coHtiderahfy altered irt later editioHS hy 
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cofiei having hcea detiroyed, the year after ilt fuMieatien, in the Great Fire of 

The later editien and tht Second Part are of almosl egnal rarity. Oannr to "' 

vionde<fuln,noffofularil,.tkeiookhas'- ■-" — j-j—"" — ■--. - 

ftrfeet copies are vtry sildom to he mrl vi. , _ 

extravaganlly high trice. The present n^nl maf therefore be tofful, 
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Our Eng;lish Surnames: Their Sources 

and Signilicaiions. By Charles Wareing Bakdslbv, M.A. 
Crowa §vo, about 600 pages, cloth extfa, 91. 

*,* Tht ckapttn artarraHrtd under tht Ullmini iratli:—i. BAPTtsirAL or 
PsBsoNiL Names; :■ Local Su una UES : 3, OfficialSukhahis; 4. OccupATiva 

SUKNAKEB ; 5. SOBKiqUBT SuRHAHRS, OH NiCKMAMKS. 

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EARLY NEWS SHEET. 

The Russian Invasion of Poland in 

1663. (Memorabilis el perinde stupenda de crudeli Moscovilamm 
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The Englishman's House, from a Cot- 
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C. J. Richardson, Architect, Author of " Old English Mansions, 
&c. Second Edi- 
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Enlaced, with 
nearly £oo lUus- 



•,' ThU Werk might 
ntt inattrsprialily it 
ttrmed ''A S«i c/ 



hetiit. TvifA M« t 



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FLAQBIiLATION AMD THE FLAaXLLANri! 

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llluslralions. Thick crown 8io, cloth extra, gilt, 12!. td. 

Pun for the Million : 

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I